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Agouti-related peptide



Agouti protein
Identifiers
Symbol Agouti
Pfam PF05039
InterPro IPR007733
SCOP 1hyk
OPM protein 1mr0
Available PDB structures:

1hykA:87-122 1mr0A:87-120 1y7jA:80-128 1y7kA:80-128

agouti related protein homolog (mouse)
Identifiers
Symbol AGRP
Entrez 181
HUGO 330
OMIM 602311
RefSeq NM_007316
UniProt O00253
Other data
Locus Chr. 16 q22

Agouti-related protein also called Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) is a neuropeptide produced in the brain (in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus) by the AgRP/NPY neuron that increases appetite and decreases metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators. Understanding the role AgRP plays in weight gain may assist in developing pharmaceutical models for treating obesity. It was identified independently by two teams based on sequence similarity with agouti, a protein synthetized in the skin that control coat color.[1][2]

Additional recommended knowledge

The appetite stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibitied by the hormone leptin. Adipocytes secrete leptin in response to food intake. This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron from releasing orexigenic peptides.[3]

AGRP has been demonstrated to be an inverse agonist of melanocortin receptors, specifically, MC3-R and MC4-R. This inverse agonism not only antagonizes the action of melanocortin agonists, such as alpha-MSH but also further decreases the cAMP produced by the affected cells. AgRP levels have been found to be elevated in obese males.[4]

Human proteins containing this domain

AGRP; ASIP;

See also

  • Agouti signalling peptide
  • Agouti

References

  1. ^ Shutter, J. R.; Graham, M.; Kinsey, A. C.; Scully, S.; Luthy, R. and Stark K. L. Hypothalamic expression of ART, a novel gene related to agouti, is up- regulated in obese and diabetic mutant mice. Genes Dev 11 (5):593-602, 1997. Entrez PubMed 9119224.
  2. ^ Ollmann, M. M.; Wilson, B. D.; Yang, Y.-K.; Kerns, J. A.; Chen, Y.; Gantz, I.; Barsh, G. S. : Antagonism of central melanocortin receptors in vitro and in vivo by agouti-related protein. Science 278: 135-138, 1997. Entrez PubMed 9311920
  3. ^ Enriori PJ, Evans AE, Sinnayah P, Jobst EE, Tonelli-Lemos L, Billes SK, Glavas MM, Grayson BE, Perello M, Nillni EA, Grove KL, Cowley MA. Cell Metab. 2007 Mar 7;5(3):181-194.
  4. ^ Katsuki, A.; Sumida, Y.; Gabazza, E. C.; Murashima, S.; Tanaka, T.; Furuta, M.; Araki-Sasaki, R.; Hori, Y.; Nakatani, K.; Yano, Y.; Adachi, Y. : Plasma levels of agouti-related protein are increased in obese men. J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 86: 1921-1924, 2001.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Agouti-related_peptide". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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