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Anemone hepatica

Anemone hepatica

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Anemone
Species: A. hepatica
Binomial name
Anemone hepatica

Anemone hepatica (common names: Kidneywort, liverwort, pennywort) is an herbaceous member of the Ranunculaceae or buttercup family that is native to the forest floors of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It has been called Hepatica nobilis also,[1] although at least one recent study of the phylogeny calls for all of Hepatica to be included in Anemone.[2] It grows on stone walls, rocks and in woodlands. The variety H. nobilis var. nobilis is native to Europe.


The taxonomy of the genus Anemone and its species is still not fully resolved. Anemone acutiloba and Anemone americana have traditionally been placed in the genus Hepatica Miller, based on the involucre immediately subtending the flower, lobed leaves instead of cut leaves and the foliage persisting year round. But the latest phylogenetic studies of Anemone analyzed, surveyed broadly over its range of species, indicates that Hepatica should be included under Anemone. Hepatica does have some morphological differences with other Anemone species, but greater similarities both in molecular attributes and other shared morphologies would seem to outweigh the differences. (S. B. Hoot et al. 1994).[3]


It was used by medieval herbalists to treat liver diseases. Modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimples, bronchitis and gout.[4]


  1. ^ Taxonomic Serial No.: 508848. Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  2. ^ Sara B. Hoot, Anton A. Reznicek, Jeffrey D. Palmer (Jan. - Mar., 1994). "Phylogenetic Relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) Based on Morphology and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany 19 (1): 169-200. doi:10.2307/2419720.
  3. ^
  4. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p.161-2
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Anemone_hepatica". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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