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The Bamberger rearrangement is the chemical reaction of N-phenylhydroxylamines with strong aqueous acid, which will rearrange to give 4-aminophenols. It is named for the German chemist Eugen Bamberger (1857–1932).
Additional recommended knowledge
N-Phenylhydroxylamines are typically synthesized from nitrobenzenes by reduction using rhodium or zinc.
The mechanism of the Bamberger rearrangement proceeds from the monoprotonation of N-phenylhydroxylamine 1. N-protonation 2 is favored, but unproductive. O-protonation 3 can form the nitrenium ion 4, which can react with nucleophiles (H2O) to form the desired 4-aminophenol 5.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bamberger_rearrangement". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|