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Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic produced by fungal organisms such as Eupenicillium brefeldianum. Brefeldin A interferes with anterograde protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus by inhibiting transport in Golgi, which leads to proteins accumulating inside the ER. In mammalian and yeast cells, the main target of brefeldin A appears to be a certain type of GTP-exchange factors responsible for activating a GTPase called Arf1p ; in turn, Arf1p is involved in the formation of transport vesicles by recruiting coat proteins to intracellular membranes. Brefeldin A was initially isolated as an anti-viral antibiotic  but is now primarily used in biological research to study protein transport.
Additional recommended knowledge
Brefeldin A affects COPI coat formation, which is involved in retrograde transport. It inhibits ArfI activation, prohibiting recruitment of COPI coat proteins to the budding vessicle by binding to its guanine exchange factor.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Brefeldin_A". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|