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Calid



Calid[1] is a medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled).

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Khalid ibn Yazid

In alchemy, Calid often refers to a historical figure, Khalid ibn Yazid (died 704 CE). He was an Umayyad prince, a grandson of Muawiyah II who was briefly caliph. Prince Khalid lost the chance of inheriting the title, but took an interest in the study of alchemy, in Egypt, facilitating translations into Arabic of the existing literature. It is to this Khalid that later allusions to Calid rex (King Calid) refer.[2][3]

Attributions to Calid

It is contested whether the attributions to Khalid ibn Yazid of alchemical writing are justified.[4][5] A popular legend has him consulting a Byzantine monk Marianos (Morienus the Greek).[6] The Liber de compositione alchimiae, which was the first alchemical work translated from Arabic to Latin[7] was purportedly an epistle of Marianos to Khalid.

Another traditional attribution is of the Liber Trium Verborum.[8] Forms as Calid filius Ysidri [9] attempt to distinguish ibn Yazid from others named Calid. Calid filius Hahmil certainly intends ibn Umail. There is a Calid filius Jaici mentioned by Jean-Jacques Manget, who includes an attributed Liber Secretorum Artis in his 1702 compilation Bibliotheca Curiosa Chemica.

Bibliophile

Khalid is attested as a book collector, by Ibn al-Nadim[10]; though it was contested by ibn Khaldun that he founded a library.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ Also Kalid, possibly Galid. Haly or Hali is likely Haly Abenragel.
  2. ^ For this see David W. Tshantz, A Short History of Islamic Pharmacy PDF. Also [1].
  3. ^ Julius Ruska, Arabische Alchemisten, I, Chalid Ibn Yazid Ibn Muawiya, Heidelberg, 1924
  4. ^ [2]:there is in fact no direct evidence to suggest that he had anything to do with early alchemy.
  5. ^ There are numerous variant names. The Jewish Encyclopedia[3] gives Kalid ben Jasiki. Variants on that are Kalid ben Jazichi, Kalid Persica, or Calid, son of Sazichi.[4]
  6. ^ This made its way much later into occult lore. Cedrenus (A.D. 491) gives an example of a magician who professed Alchemy. Morienus (a Hermit, whose works were translated from Arabic into Latin as early as A.D. 1182) learned the Art of Transmutation, or the Great Elixir, at Rome of Adsar, an Alexandrian and a Christian, and afterwards taught it to Calid, or Evelid, the son of Gizid the Second, who was King of Egypt about the year A.D. 725. From John Yarker, Introduction to the Golden Tractate.[5]
  7. ^ See [6] for this claim; it was translated by Robert of Chester, 1144.
  8. ^ See for example [7]. This book is also attributed to Rasis or to a Radianus/Rodianus. Another work but with the same name is attributed to Ramón Lull.
  9. ^ Or Calid filius Seid, Calid filius Isid.[8]. Filius here stands for 'son of' in Latin, so translating 'ibn'. Also Kalid ben Jesid, Calid fils de Jesid, Calid filius Gesid, etc.
  10. ^ See also [9][10].
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Calid". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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