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Doctor of Pharmacy
Additional recommended knowledge
In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. It has been available from the University of British Columbia since 1991 and at the University of Toronto, both offering it as a post-graduate degree. Since 2007 the Université de Montréal has offered a 4 year undergraduate Pharm. D. programme in French.
Traditionally in the United States, the bachelor's degree in pharmacy was the first-professional degree for pharmacy practice. However, in 1990, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mandated that a doctorate in pharmacy would be the new first-professional degree. As of the year 2000, all pharmacy schools in the U.S. have discontinued the B.S.Pharm. (Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy) degree program.
In France, Pharmacy studies can only be accessed through a competitive examination ("concours", with numerus clausus) happening at the end of the first year, similarly to Medicine studies. Most candidates hold a Scientific Baccalaureate from the equivalent to high schools (lycée). In case of failure, it is possible to retry once (twice in extremely rare cases). Yearly success rate depends on the university's current numerus clausus and the number or registered students, ranging from 10 to 40% bearing in mind that second-time participants are three to four times more likely to succeed than students trying for the first time. The studies last a minimum of 6 years, or 9 years for students choosing hospital internship (accessible through another competitive exam, even more selective). Students must specialise when entering the 5th year, and choose between dispensing pharmacy, pharmaceutical industry or hospital internship. In any case, a 12-month part-time hospital externship is mandatory during the 5th year, although some flexibility is possible for students choosing industry. 6th year for industry is generally dedicated to further specialisation with a DESS/Professional Master's degree or a DEA/Research Master's degree. State diploma for the Doctorate of Pharmacy, Pharm D., is granted to pharmacists after they have completed a bibliographic thesis.
In France, since the harmonization of European Union in September 2005, the student who chooses the industry/research orientation have a 6 month period of part time hospital externship, and 3 to 6 month of full time training in a pharmaceutical industry or a research lab.
It is also possible to defend an experimental (research) thesis, but you have the same diploma.
In Italy, the course of study leading to the laurea known as Dottore in farmacia lasts 5 years and includes a guided professional apprenticeship in a pharmacy.
In the Netherlands the Pharm. D. is a graduate degree that requires a prior Masters of Science (M.Sc.) degree in Pharmacy.
In the United Kingdom the DPharm is a relatively new postgraduate doctorate degree open to qualified pharmacists. It is offered by the University of Bradford, taking place over 3 years of clinical practice followed by 2 years of research. It is also offered by the University of Portsmouth and the University of Derby.
In Pakistan the B-pharmacy course was upgraded to Pharm.D in 2003. Pharm.D in Pakistan is a professional bachelor degree consisting of 5 years i.e. 10 semesters.Most universities in Pakistan are offering the Pharm.D program.The qualified institutes are recognized by the Pakistan Pharmacy Council. S
In the Philippines, only the Centro Escolar University offers the degree Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD). The degree requires the completion of 52 units of formal course work and 36 units of clinical rotation done at the Makati Medical Center. It is a 2-year postbaccalaureate degree open to licensed pharmacists in the philippines. 
Licentiate · Specialist degree · Engineer's degree · Professional degree · Doctoral degree