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Glucagon hormone family

Glucagon (1gcn)
Symbol Hormone_2
Pfam PF00123
InterPro IPR000532
SCOP 1gcn
OPM protein 1gcn
Available PDB structures:

1geaA:132-151 1d0rA:98-125 1jrjA:48-75 1kx6A:53-80 1gcn :53-80 1nauA:59-80 1bh0 :53-80 1t5qA:52-79

Glucagon/GIP/secretin/VIP hormones are a family of evolutionarily related peptide hormones that regulate activity of G-protein coupled receptors from secretin receptor family.

A number of polypeptidic hormones, mainly expressed in the intestine or the pancreas, belong to a group of these structurally related peptides[1][2]. Once such hormone, glucagon is widely distributed and produced in the alpha-cells of pancreatic islets[3]. It affects glucose metabolism in the liver[4] by inhibiting glycogen synthesis, stimulating glycogenolysis and enchancing gluconeogenesis. It also increases mobilisation of glucose, free fatty acids and ketone bodies, which are metabolites produced in excess in diabetes mellitus. Glucagon is produced, like other peptide hormones, as part of a larger precursor (preproglucagon), which is cleaved to produce glucagon, glucagon-like protein I and glucagon-like protein II[5]. The structure of glucagon itself is fully conserved in all known mammalian species[3]. Other members of the structurally similar group include glicentin precursor, secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), prealbumin, peptide HI-27 and growth hormone releasing factor.

Human hormones from this family



  1. ^ Mutt V (1988). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and related peptides. Isolation and chemistry". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 527: 1-19. PMID 3133967.
  2. ^ Bataille D, Blache P, Mercier F, Jarrousse C, Kervran A, Dufour M, Mangeat P, Dubrasquet M, Mallat A, Lotersztajn S (1988). "Glucagon and related peptides. Molecular structure and biological specificity". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 527: 168-185. PMID 3291691.
  3. ^ a b Conlon JM, Thim L (1985). "Primary structure of glucagon from an elasmobranchian fish. Torpedo marmorata". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 60 (3): 398-40 5. PMID 4076759.
  4. ^ Kumar A, Lopez LC, Frazier ML, Su CJ, Saunders GF (1983). "Mammalian pancreatic preproglucagon contains three glucagon-related peptides". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80 (18): 5485-5489. PMID 6577439.
  5. ^ Pollock HG, Hamilton JW, Rouse JB, Ebner KE, Rawitch AB (1988). "Isolation of peptide hormones from the pancreas of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Amino acid sequences of pancreatic polypeptide, oxyntomodulin, and two glucagon-like peptides". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (20): 9746-9751. PMID 3260236.

This article includes text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR000532

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Glucagon_hormone_family". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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