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Kowalski ester homologation

The Kowalski ester homologation is a chemical reaction for the homologation of esters.[1][2]

This reaction was designed as a safer alternative to the Arndt-Eistert synthesis. The Kowalski reaction is named after its inventor, Conrad J. Kowalski.


Reaction mechanism

The mechanism is disputed.


A modification of the procedure has been described that results in higher yields.[3]

By changing the reagent in the second step of the reaction, the Kowalski ester homologation can also be used for the preparation of silyl ynol ethers.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Kowalski, C. J.; Haque, M. S.; Fields, K. W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107, 1429. (doi:10.1021/ja00291a063)
  2. ^ Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 9, p.426 (1998); Vol. 71, p.146 (1993). (Article)
  3. ^ Smith III, A. B.; Kozmin, S. A.; Paone, D. V. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 4984. (doi:10.1021/ja000430p)

See also

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Kowalski_ester_homologation". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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