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Signed and ratified

See also: Kyoto Protocol

  As of November 2007, 174 states have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, aimed at combating global warming. The count on the UNFCCC list[1][2] includes three extra parties:

  • Niue and Cook Islands are counted separately. These are self-governing islands, but are not independent from New Zealand.
  • In addition to its member states, the European Union is counted as a party to the Protocol.

Note: Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that an Annex I party (e.g. a developed country or one with an 'economy in transition') has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol. 37 of the 39 Annex I parties have agreed to cap their emissions in this way, two others are required to do so under their conditions of accession into the EU, and one more intends to become an Annex I party.

Country UNFCCC annex % for ratification reduction commitment for 2012[3] Signed Ratification/Acceptance Notes
1  Fiji member 17 September 1998 17 September 1998
2  Antigua and Barbuda member 16 March 1998 3 November 1998
3  Tuvalu member 16 November 1998 16 November 1998
4  Maldives member 16 March 1998 30 December 1998
5  Turkmenistan member 28 September 1998 11 January 1999
6  Trinidad and Tobago member 7 January 1999 28 January 1999
7  Panama member 8 June 1998 5 March 1999
8  Bahamas member 9 April 1999
9  Georgia member 16 June 1999
10  Federated States of Micronesia member 17 March 1998 21 June 1999
11  Jamaica member 28 June 1999
12  Cyprus member 16 July 1999 -[4]
13  Paraguay member 25 August 1998 27 August 1999
14  Guatemala member 10 July 1998 5 October 1999
15  Uzbekistan member 20 November 1998 12 October 1999
16  Nicaragua member 7 July 1998 18 November 1999
17  Bolivia member 29 July 1998 30 November 1999
18  Palau member 10 December 1999
19  Mongolia member 15 December 1999
20  Ecuador member 15 January 1999 13 January 2000
21  El Salvador member 8 June 1998 13 January 2000
22  Honduras member 25 February 1999 19 July 2000
23  Barbados member 7 August 2000
24  Equatorial Guinea member 16 August 2000
25  Lesotho member 6 September 2000
26  Guinea member 7 September 2000
27  Kiribati member 7 September 2000
28  Mexico member 9 June 1998 7 September 2000
29  Azerbaijan member 28 September 2000
30  Samoa member 16 March 1998 27 November 2000
31  Uruguay member 29 July 1998 5 February 2001
32  Romania member I 1.24% -8%[5] 5 January 1999 19 March 2001
33  Mauritius member 9 May 2001
34  Gambia member 1 June 2001
35  Vanuatu member 17 July 2001
36  Senegal member 20 July 2001
37  Nauru member 16 August 2001
38  Argentina member 16 March 1998 28 September 2001
39  Burundi member 18 October 2001
40  Bangladesh member 22 October 2001
41  Malawi member 26 October 2001
42  Malta member -[4] 17 April 1998 11 November 2001
43  Czech Republic member I 1.24% -8%[5] 23 November 1998 15 November 2001
44  Colombia member 30 November 2001
45  Morocco member 25 January 2002
46  Dominican Republic member 12 February 2002
47  Benin member 25 February 2002
48  Djibouti member 12 March 2002
49  Uganda member 25 March 2002
50  Mali member 27 January 1999 28 March 2002
51  Papua New Guinea member 2 March 1999 28 March 2002
52  Cuba member 15 March 1999 30 April 2002
53  Iceland member I, II 0.02% +10%[6] 23 May 2002 55th entity (if counting with the Cook Islands and Niue), this fulfills the first condition for coming-into-force
54  Norway member I, II 0.26% +1%[6] 29 April 1998 30 May 2002
--  European Union member[7] I, II 31.68% -8%[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 All ratifications of the then-EU-members are deposited simultaneously (see 55-70)
55  Austria member I, II 0.4% -8% (-13%)[5] 24 September 1998 31 May 2002
56  Belgium member I, II 0.8% -8% (-7.5%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
57  Denmark member I, II 0.4% -8% (-21%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  Greenland: applied
 Faroe Islands: not applied
58  Finland member I, II 0.4% -8% (0%)[5][8] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
59  France member I, II 2.7% -8% (0%)[5][8] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  French Guiana,  Guadeloupe,  Martinique,  Réunion: applied
 French Polynesia,  New Caledonia,  Wallis and Futuna,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Mayotte,  Saint Pierre and Miquelon: not applied
60  Germany member I, II 7.4% -8% (-21%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
61  Greece member I, II 0.6% -8% (+25%),[5][6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
62  Ireland member I, II 0.2% -8% (+13%),[5][6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
63  Italy member I, II 3.1% -8% (-6.5%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
64  Luxembourg member I, II 0.1% -8% (-28%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
65  Netherlands member I, II 1.2% -8% (-6%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  Aruba: not applied
 Netherlands Antilles: not applied
66  Portugal member I, II 0.3% -8% (+27%),[5][6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
67  Spain member I, II 1.9% -8% (+15%),[5][6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
68  Sweden member I, II 0.4% -8% (+4%),[5][6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
69  United Kingdom member I, II 4.3% -8% (-12.5%)[5] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
70  Slovakia member I 0.42% -8%[5] 26 February 1998 31 May 2002
71  Japan member I, II 8.55% -6% 28 April 1998 4 June 2002
72  Latvia member I 0.17% -8% 14 December 1998 5 July 2002
73  Seychelles member 20 March 1998 22 July 2002
74  South Africa member 31 July 2002
75  Slovenia member I -[9] -8%[5] 21 October 1998 2 August 2002
76  Grenada member 6 August 2002
77  Costa Rica member 27 April 1998 9 August 2002
78  Bulgaria member I 0.6% -8%[5] 18 September 1998 15 August 2002
79  Hungary member I 0.52% -6%[5] 21 August 2002
80  Cambodia member 22 August 2002
81  Brazil member 29 April 1998 23 August 2002
82  Bhutan member 26 August 2002
83  Chile member 17 June 1998 26 August 2002
84  India member 26 August 2002
85  Tanzania member 26 August 2002
86  Cameroon member 28 August 2002
87  Thailand member 2 February 1999 28 August 2002
88  China member 29 May 1998 30 August 2002  Hong Kong: applied since April 8 2003
 Macau: not applied
89  Sri Lanka member 3 September 2002
90  Malaysia member 12 March 1999 4 September 2002
91  Peru member 13 November 1998 12 September 2002
92  Vietnam member 3 December 1998 25 September 2002
93  Estonia member I 0.28% -8%[5] 3 December 1998 14 October 2002
94  Liberia member 5 November 2002
95  South Korea member 25 September 1998 8 November 2002
96  Poland member I 3.02% -6%[5] 15 July 1998 13 December 2002
97  Canada member I, II 3.33% -6% 29 April 1998 17 December 2002
98  New Zealand member[10] I, II 0.19% 0%[8] 22 May 1998 19 December 2002  Niue: signed 8 December 1998, ratified 6 May 1999
 Cook Islands: signed 16 September 1998, ratified 27 August 2001
 Tokelau: not applied
99  Lithuania member I -[9] -8%[5] 21 September 1998 3 January 2003
100  Jordan member 17 January 2003
101  Tunisia member 22 January 2003
102  Laos member 6 February 2003
103  Solomon Islands member 29 September 1998 13 March 2003
104  Moldova member 22 April 2003
105  Armenia member 25 April 2003
106  Kyrgyzstan member 13 May 2003
107  Ghana member 30 May 2003
108  Switzerland member I, II 0.32% -8% 16 March 1998 9 July 2003
109  Guyana member 5 August 2003
110  Botswana member 8 August 2003
111  Marshall Islands member 17 March 1998 11 August 2003
112  Burma member 13 August 2003
113  Saint Lucia member 16 March 1998 20 August 2003
114  Namibia member 4 September 2003
115  Madagascar member 24 September 2003
116  Belize member 26 September 2003
117  Philippines member 15 April 1998 20 November 2003
118  Israel member 16 December 1998 15 March 2004
119  Ukraine member I -[9] 0%[8] 15 March 1999 12 April 2004
120  Togo member 2 July 2004
121  Rwanda member 22 July 2004
122  Yemen member 15 September 2004
123  Niger member 23 October 1998 30 September 2004
124  Sudan member 2 November 2004
125  Russia member I 17.4% 0%[8] 11 March 1999 18 November 2004 With Russia's ratification the "55 percent of 1990 carbon dioxide emissions of the Parties included in Annex I" clause was satisfied and the treaty brought into force, effective 16 February 2005.
126  Republic of Macedonia member 18 November 2004
127  Indonesia member 13 July 1998 3 December 2004
128  Liechtenstein member I 0.0015% -8% 29 June 1998 3 December 2004
129  Nigeria member 10 December 2004
130  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines member 19 March 1998 31 December 2004
131  Pakistan member 11 January 2005
132  Qatar member 11 January 2005
133  Egypt member 15 March 1999 12 January 2005
134  Mozambique member 18 January 2005
135  Oman member 19 January 2005
136  Dominica member 25 January 2005
137  United Arab Emirates member 26 January 2005
138  Saudi Arabia member 31 January 2005
139  Algeria member 16 February 2005
140  Venezuela member 18 February 2005
141  Kenya member 25 February 2005
142  Kuwait member 11 March 2005
143  Democratic Republic of the Congo member 23 March 2005
144  Burkina Faso member 31 March 2005
145  Albania member 1 April 2005
146  Ethiopia member 14 April 2005
147  North Korea member 27 April 2005
148  Haiti member 6 July 2005
149  Mauritania member 22 July 2005
150  Eritrea member 28 July 2005
151  Iran member 22 August 2005
152  Belarus member I -[9] none yet[11] 26 August 2005
153  Nepal member 16 September 2005
154  Guinea-Bissau member 18 November 2005
155  Swaziland member 13 January 2006
156  Syria member 27 January 2006
157  Bahrain member 31 January 2006
158  Cape Verde member 10 February 2006
159  Monaco member I 0.0015% -8% 29 April 1998 27 February 2006
160  Singapore member 12 April 2006
161  Zambia member August 5 1998 July 7 2006
162  Libya member August 24 2006
163  Suriname member September 25 2006
164  Sierra Leone member November 10 2006
165  Lebanon member November 13 2006
166  Gabon member December 12 2006
167  Congo member February 12 2007
168  Bosnia and Herzegovina member April 16 2007
169  Côte d'Ivoire member April 23 2007
170  Croatia member I -[9] -5% March 11 1999 April 27 2007
171  Angola member May 8 2007
172  Montenegro observer June 4 2007
173  Serbia member September 24 2007
174  Australia member I, II 2.1% +8%[6] April 29 1998 December 3 2007
total countries: members: 173
observers: 1
I: 37
II: 21
32 -%: 31 (24)
0%: 3 (5)
+%: 2 (7)

Signed but not yet ratified

Country UNFCCC annex % for ratification reduction target 2008/12 Signed Ratification/Acceptance Notes
 Kazakhstan member [12] -[13] none yet[14] March 12 1999
total countries: members: 1
observers: 0

Not intending to ratify

Country UNFCCC annex % for ratification reduction target 2008/12 Signed Ratification/Acceptance Notes
 United States member I, II 36.1% -7% November 12 1998 Federal government has not ratified
total countries: members: 1
observers: 0
I: 1
II: 1
1 -%: 1
0%: 0
+%: 0

No position expressed yet

Entity UNFCCC annex % for ratification reduction target 2008/12 Signed Ratification/Acceptance Notes
1  Afghanistan member
2  Andorra observer
3  Brunei observer
4  Central African Republic member
5  Chad member
6  Comoros member
7  Iraq observer
8  Republic of China (Taiwan)
9  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
10  Saint Kitts and Nevis member
11  San Marino member
12  São Tomé and Príncipe member
13  Somalia observer
14  Tajikistan member
15  Timor-Leste member
16  Tonga member
17  Turkey member I, -[15] -[9] none yet[11]
18  Vatican City observer
19  Zimbabwe member
total entities: 19 members: 12
observers: 5
none: 2
I: 1
II: 0
  • According to the UNFCCC, Brunei is now a member of the Kyoto Protocol*

References

  1. ^ Kyoto Protocol Status of Ratification (pdf). Retrieved on October 12, 2006.
  2. ^ Status of Ratification. UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol Background. Retrieved on May 8, 2007.
  3. ^ As per Kyoto protocol annex B [1]
  4. ^ a b Cyprus and Malta become EU members after the signature of the Kyoto protocol, but have not yet changed their status to become annex I/II/B states and thus have no commitment for emissions reduction. However, as EU members they are obliged to participate in the EU ETS
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y The EU15 has a total aggregate figure -8% for reduction; emissions will be pooled among member states trough internal EU reduction assignments mentioned in the brackets (thus increases in some member states are compensated by bigger reductions in others). The 12 member states that entered the union later - in 2004 and 2007 retain their individual Kyoto targets ranging from none for non-annex Cyprus and Malta to -8%. [2]
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h increase allowed
  7. ^ The EU member states are also members of the UNFCCC on their own.
  8. ^ a b c d e Neither reduction required, nor increase allowed - emissions should stay at their 1990 level.
  9. ^ a b c d e f For some reason despite being annex-I states some countries' emissions are not calculated into the total percentage for entry into force of the Kyoto protocol.
  10. ^ New Zealand's territories of the Cook Islands and Niue are also members of the UNFCCC on their own.
  11. ^ a b Annex I countries that were not parties to the UNFCCC at the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol have no reduction targets assigned.
  12. ^ Kazakhstan has declared that it wants to become annex I state after its ratification of the protocol. Its reduction target under annex B is thus not yet determined.
  13. ^ At the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol Kazakhstan was not annex I state, that's why its emissions are not calculated in the figure for the ratification.
  14. ^ To be determined when Kazakhstan becomes annex I state
  15. ^ Turkey was removed from the annex II list in 2001 at its request its economy to be recognised as a transition one
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_Kyoto_Protocol_signatories". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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