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Lysyl oxidase



lysyl oxidase
Identifiers
Symbol LOX
Entrez 4015
HUGO 6664
OMIM 153455
RefSeq NM_002317
UniProt P28300
Other data
EC number 1.4.3.13
Locus Chr. 5 q23.3-31.2

Lysyl oxidase is an extracellular enzyme that catalyzes formation of aldehydes from lysine residues in collagen and elastin precursors. These aldehydes are highly reactive, and undergo spontaneous chemical reactions with other lysyl oxidase-derived aldehyde residues, or with unmodified lysine residues. This results in cross-linking collagen and elastin, which is essential for stabilization of collagen fibrils and for the integrity and elasticity of mature elastin.

Additional recommended knowledge

Complex cross-links are formed in collagen (pyrodininolines derived from three lysine residues) and in elastin (desmosines derived from four lysine residues) that differ in structure.

The importance of lysyl oxidase-derived cross-linking was established from animal studies in which lysyl oxidase was inhibited either by nutritional copper-deficiency or by supplementation of diets with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an inhibitor of lysyl oxidase. This resulted in lathyrism, characterized by poor bone formation and strength, hyperextensible skin, weak ligaments, and increased occurrence of aortic aneurysms. These abnormalities correlated well with decreased cross-linking of collagen and elastin.

References

  • Molecular Biology of the Cell - Alberts (2002 - 4th Edition) ISBN 0815332181

See also

 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lysyl_oxidase". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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