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Main subunit of cytochrome c oxidase
Cytochrome C and Quinol oxidase polypeptide I is main subunit of cytochrome c oxidase complex.
Cytochrome c oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) is a key enzyme in aerobic metabolism. Proton pumping heme-copper oxidases represent the terminal, energy-transfer enzymes of respiratory chains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The CuB-heme a3 (or heme o) binuclear centre, associated with the largest subunit I of cytochrome c and ubiquinol oxidases (EC 1.10.3), is directly involved in the coupling between dioxygen reduction and proton pumping. Some terminal oxidases generate a transmembrane proton gradient across the plasma membrane (prokaryotes) or the mitochondrial inner membrane (eukaryotes).
The enzyme complex consists of 3-4 subunits (prokaryotes) up to 13 polypeptides (mammals) of which only the catalytic subunit (equivalent to mammalian subunit I (CO I)) is found in all heme-copper respiratory oxidases. The presence of a bimetallic centre (formed by a high-spin heme and copper B) as well as a low-spin heme, both ligated to six conserved histidine residues near the outer side of four transmembrane spans within CO I is common to all family members. In contrast to eukaryotes the respiratory chain of prokaryotes is branched to multiple terminal oxidases. The enzyme complexes vary in heme and copper composition, substrate type and substrate affinity. The different respiratory oxidases allow the cells to customize their respiratory systems according to a variety of environmental growth conditions.
It has been shown that eubacterial quinol oxidase was derived from cytochrome c oxidase in Gram-positive bacteria and that archaebacterial quinol oxidase has an independent origin. A considerable amount of evidence suggests that proteobacteria (Purple bacteria) acquired quinol oxidase through a lateral gene transfer from Gram-positive bacteria.
A related nitric oxide reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) exists in denitrifying species of archae and eubacteria and is a heterodimer of cytochromes b and c. Phenazine methosulphate can act as acceptor.
Additional recommended knowledge
Human proteins containing this domain
CO1; COI; COX1; MT-CO1;
Yamaguchi H, Shinzawa-Itoh K, Nakashima R, Yaono R, Yoshikawa S; Science 1996;272:1136-1144. PubMed
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Main_subunit_of_cytochrome_c_oxidase". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|