My watch list
my.chemeurope.com  
Login  

Medical cannabis




Medical cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic.

There are many studies regarding the use of cannabis in a medicinal context.[1][2][3][4] Cannabis was listed in the United States Pharmacopeia from 1850 until 1942.[citation needed] The United States federal government does not currently recognize any legitimate medical use, although there are currently seven patients receiving cannabis for their various illnesses through the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program that was closed to new patients by President George H. W. Bush. Francis L. Young, an administrative law judge with the US Drug Enforcement Agency, in 1988, declared that "in its natural form, (cannabis) is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known."[5] However, smoked cannabis is today not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). [6] Twelve states currently allow for the medicinal use of cannabis.

The term medical marijuana post-dates the U.S. Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, the effect of which made cannabis prescriptions illegal in the United States.

Due to widespread illegality of cannabis as a recreational drug its legal or licensed use in medicine is a controversial issue.

[7]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

History

 Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for over 4,800 years.[8] Surviving texts from ancient India confirm that its psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a variety of illnesses and ailments. These included a whole host of gastrointestinal disorders, insomnia, headaches and as a pain reliever, frequently used in childbirth. The ancient Egyptians even used hemp (cannabis) in suppositories for relieving the pain of hemorrhoids.[15]

In the medieval Islamic world, Arabic physicians discovered the diuretic, antiemetic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain killing and antipyretic properties of cannabis sativa, and used it extensively as medication from the 8th to 18th centuries.[9]

Cannabis as a medicine became common throughout much of the world by the 19th century. It was used as the primary pain reliever until the invention of aspirin.[10] Modern medical and scientific inquiry began with doctors like O'Shaughnessy and Moreau de Tours, who used it to treat melancholia, migraines, and as a sleeping aid, analgesic and anticonvulsant.

By the time the United States banned cannabis (the third country to do so) with the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, the plant was no longer extremely popular. Skepticism about marijuana arose in response to the bill. One of the main opponents to the bill was the representative of the American Medical Association.[11]

Later in the century, researchers investigating methods of detecting cannabis intoxication discovered that smoking the drug reduced intraocular pressure.[12] High intraocular pressure causes blindness in glaucoma patients, so many believed that using the drug could prevent blindness in patients. Many Vietnam War veterans also believed that the drug prevented muscle spasms caused by battle-induced spinal injuries. Later medical use has focused primarily on its role in preventing the wasting syndromes and chronic loss of appetite associated with chemotherapy and AIDS, along with a variety of rare muscular and skeletal disorders. Less commonly, cannabis has been used in the treatment of alcoholism and addiction to other drugs such as heroin and the prevention of migraines. In recent years, studies have shown or researchers have speculated that the main chemical in the drug, THC, might help prevent atherosclerosis.

In 1972 Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D. reignited the debate concerning marijuana as medicine when he published "Marijuana Medical Papers 1839-1972".

Later, in the 1970s, a synthetic version of THC, the primary active ingredient in cannabis, was synthesized to make the drug Marinol. Users reported several problems with Marinol, however, that led many to abandon the pill and resume smoking the plant. Patients complained that the violent nausea associated with chemotherapy made swallowing pills difficult. The effects of smoked cannabis are felt almost immediately, and is therefore easily dosed.[13] Marinol (Jojel), like ingested cannabis, is very psychoactive, and is harder to titrate than smoked cannabis.[14] Marinol has also consistently been more expensive than herbal cannabis.[15] Some studies have indicated that other chemicals in the plant may have a synergistic effect with THC.[16]

In addition, during the 1970s and 1980s, six US states' health departments performed studies on the use of medical marijuana. These are widely considered some of the most useful and pioneering studies on the subject,[citation needed]

In May 2001, "The Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis" (Russo, Mathre, Byrne et al) was completed. This three-day examination of major body functions of four of the five living US federal cannabis patients found "mild pulmonary changes" in two patients.[17]

Availability

Potential health benefits aside, marijuana remains a US Federally controlled substance, making transport across state lines illegal. It has been estimated that an average "marijuana clinic" consumes a pound of cannabis per day[citation needed], making acquisition a critical challenge. This acquisition may have to resort to illegitimate (i.e., illegal) sources, contributing to crime in communities. This point was illustrated in early 2007, with the tragic murder of Denver area medical cannabis activist Ken Gorman [18].

Researchers face similar challenges in obtaining medical cannabis for research trial. Recently, the US FDA has approved a number of cannabis research clinical trials, but the Drug Enforcement Agency has not granted licenses to the researchers in these studies.

Early studies on efficacy

New Mexico

A study included 250 patients and compared smoked cannabis to oral THC, under the auspices of the Food and Drug Administration. All participants were evaluated by a medical doctor and had vomiting uncontrolled using at least three alternative antiemetics. Patients chose smoking cannabis or taking an oral THC pill. Multiple objective and subjective standards were used to determine the effectiveness.[citation needed]

  • Conclusion: Cannabis was far superior to the best available drug at the time of testing, Compazine, and smoked cannabis is clearly superior to oral THC. "More than ninety percent of the patients who received cannabis... reported significant or total relief from nausea and vomiting." No major side effects were reported, though three patients reported adverse reactions that did not involve cannabis alone. The report, dated November 6, 1988, can be read here, though no publication in the peer-reviewed medical literature has been made.

Tennessee

27 patients had failed on other antiemetics therapies, including oral THC.

  • Conclusion: 90.4% success for smoked cannabis; 66.7% for oral THC. "We found both marijuana smoking and THC capsules to be effective antiemetics. We found an approximate 23% higher success rate among those patients administered smoked marijuana. We found no significant differences in success rates by age group. The major reason for THC capsule failure was nausea and vomiting so severe that the patient could not retain the capsule."[citation needed]

California

A series of studies throughout the 1980s involved 90–100 patients a year. The study was designed to make it easier for patients to enter the oral THC part of the study. Patients who wanted to smoke cannabis had to be over 15 years old (oral THC patients had to be over 5) and use the drug only in the hospital and not at home. Smoked cannabis patients also had to be receiving rare and painful forms of chemotherapy to qualify.

  • Conclusion: Despite the bias towards oral THC, the California study concluded that smoked cannabis was more effective and established a safe dosage regimen that minimized adverse side effects. The full text of the study can be seen here.[citation needed]

 

Georgia

119 patients that had failed using other antiemetics were randomly assigned to oral THC pills and either standardized or patient-controlled smoking of cannabis.

  • Conclusion: All three categories were successful — patient controlled smokers at 72.2%; standardized smokers at 65.4%; oral THC at 76%. Failure of oral THC patients was due to adverse reaction (6 out of 18) or failure to improve (9 out of 18); failure of smoking cannabis was due to intolerance for smoking (6 out of 14) or failure to improve (3 out of 14).[citation needed]

Harm reduction

Many medical cannabis opponents note that smoked cannabis is harmful to the respiratory system. However, this harm can be minimalized or eliminated by the use of a vaporizer or ingesting the drug in an edible form or other non-smoking modes of delivery like tinctures. Vaporizers are devices that vaporize the active constituents (cannabinoids) and the fragrant aromatic substances in the preparation without combusting the plant material and thus preventing the formation of toxic substances. Studies have shown that vaporizers can dramatically reduce[19] or even eliminate[20] the release of irritants and toxic compounds.

Indications

According to a survey on the recommendation of cannabis in California[21], cannabis is indicated for over 250 conditions. Cannabis is most importantly indicated as an antiemetic for the treatment of nausea and anorexia associated with treatments for cancer, AIDS, and hepatitis. Cannabis also acts as an antispasmodic and anticonvulsant and is indicated for neurological conditions such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and spasms. As an analgesic and an immunomodulator it is indicated for conditions such as migraine, arthritis, spinal and skeletal disorders. As a bronchodilator it is beneficial for asthma. It also reduces the intraocular pressure and is indicated for glaucoma. Recent studies have shown the drug to be efficacious in treating mood disorders and mental health issues such as depression, post traumatic stress disorder, clinical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and bipolar disorder.[16] It is also indicated for premenstrual syndrome, hypertension, and insomnia.

In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act makes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the sole government entity responsible for ensuring the safety and efficacy of new prescription and over-the-counter drugs, overseeing the labeling and marketing of drugs, and regulating the manufacturing and packaging of drugs.[22] The FDA defines a drug as safe and effective for a specific indication if the clinical benefits to the patient are felt to outweigh any health risks the drug might pose. FDA and comparable authorities in Western Europe including the Netherlands, have not approved smoked marijuana for any condition or disease. [23] [24] Cannabis remains illegal throughout the United States and is not approved for prescription as medicine, although 12 states - Alaska, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington - approve and regulate its medical use. (The federal government continues to enforce its prohibition in these states.) However, there are also 2 states, Arizona and Maryland, whose drug laws are favourable towards the medicinal use of marijuana,[clarify] but which still explicitly ban it.

Notable pro- and anti-medical cannabis individuals

Proponents

 

  • Carl Sagan - American astronomer and astrochemist.
  • Ron Paul - MD, Congressman and Republican candidate in the 2008 United States presidential election. [25]
  • Ann Druyan - wife of Carl Sagan, one of the writers of Cosmos: A Personal Voyage.
  • Drew Carey- Comedian, host of The Price is Right
  • Willie Nelson - Singer and songwriter.
  • William F. Buckley - conservative Republican talking head, publisher of the National Review. Author of Free Weeds 29 June 2004, and The Court on High 7 June 2005.
  • Dennis Peron - co-author of 215, along with Anna Boyce and Scott Imler. Founder of the first Cannabis Club, and in 1995 the 5-story Cannabis Buyers Club at 1444 Market Street (the main street of town) San Francisco.
  • Gatewood Galbraith - Kentucky attorney; life-long crusader for liberty and human dignity; one of America's leading hemp advocates.
  • Sister Jane Weirick - among other things Sister Jane was a buyer for Dennis at the San Francisco Cannabis Buyers Club. She worked tirelessly until her death, opening the Hayward Patient's Resource Center.
  • Dr. Jay Cavanaugh - founder of the American Alliance for Medical Cannabis. Gubernatorial Appointment to California State Board of Pharmacy 1980-82, reappointed 1982-86, reappointed to final Constitutional term 1986-90. Assisted in developing and coordinating drug enforcement against pharmacies, wholesalers, and manufacturers, diverting narcotics. Developed and implemented Recovering Pharmacist Program. Assisted in insuring pharmacist consultation with patients.
  • Dr. Lester Grinspoon - Author of Marijuana the Forbidden Medicine
  • Dr. Donald Abrams - Donald Abrams, MD, is Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of California San Francisco, Chief of Hematology/Oncology at San Francisco General Hospital and Director of Clinical Programs at the Osher Center.
  • Christopher Hitchens spoke as a proponent of medical marijuana in the 2007 documentary film In Pot We Trust.[26]
  • Angel Raich - U.S. activist, respondent in Gonzales v. Raich.
  • Ed Rosenthal - A horitcultarist that fights for the right to grow marijuana for medicinal purposes.
  • Fred Gardner - "the chronicler of the movement", published in CounterPunch and other prominent publications and author of O'Shaunessey's, the Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group.
  • Steve Kubby - Key Organizer of California's Proposition 215 [17], Founder and National Director American Medical Marijuana Association.
  • Peter McWilliams - Author who used cannabis to relieve pain.
  • Rick Steves - PBS Travel Show Host and on NORML's advisory board.
  • Rob Kampia - Founder of Marijuana Policy Project.
  • Dana Rohrabacher - United States Congressman who proposed a bill to stop Department of Justice from arresting medical cannabis patients.
  • Bill Maher - Comedian and host of Real Time with Bill Maher on HBO.
  • Ethan Nadelmann - President of Drug Policy Alliance.
  • Bill Mescher - A South Carolina state senator who proposed legalization of medical cannabis.
  • Keith Stroup - Founder of NORML.
  • Penn Jillette - Of Penn and Teller, though he has never used recreational drugs.
  • Woody Harrelson - American actor.
  • Snoop Dogg - American rap artist.
  • Stephen Jay Gould - American paleontologist and evolutionary biologist.
  • Tonya Davis- Ohio Medical cannabis patient. Director Patient Advocate with Ohio Patient Network (Ohiopatient.net),Ohios State Director AAMC, Medical marijuana Director North Ohio NORML
  • Montel Williams - talk show host, after using it to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis.[27]
  • Loretta Nall - Founder of the United States Marijuana party
  • Robert Anton Wilson - novelist, essayist, philosopher, futurologist, libertarian, and founder of the Guns and Dope Party
  • Marc Emery - Cannabis Culture Magazine, former seed merchant facing extradition to the US.
  • Kevin L. Wisneski - Libertarian Democrat politician, educator and theologian.

Emerging medical consensus

Dozens of medical organizations have endorsed allowing patients access to medical marijuana with their physicians' approval. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - America's second largest cancer charity.[28]
  • American Academy of Family Physicians[29]
  • American Public Health Association[30]
  • American Psychiatric Association [31]
  • American Nurses Association[32]
  • British Medical Association[33]
  • AIDS Action[34]
  • American Academy of HIV Medicine[35]
  • Lymphoma Foundation of America[36]
  • Health Canada[37]

Opponents

 

  • Hamid Ghodse - International Narcotics Control Board president.
  • John P. Walters - Current Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy of United States.
  • Mark Souder - U.S. Congressman who filed an amicus brief in support of the U.S. government in Gonzales v. Raich. The federal government may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes.
  • Andrea Barthwell - Former deputy director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy under George W. Bush.
  • Paul Clement - Current Solicitor General who argued on behalf of the federal government in Gonzales v. Raich.
  • Dan Lungren - Former Attorney General of California who presided over crackdown of medical marijuana dispensaries.
  • Rush Limbaugh - Nationally syndicated radio talk show host. [38]
  • Asa Hutchinson - Former Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration. [39]
  • Richard Carmona - Former U.S. Surgeon General. [40]
  • William Bennett - Former Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. [41]
  • Mitt Romney Republican candidate in the 2008 United States presidential election. [42]
  • George H. Bush - 41st President of the United States.
  • George W. Bush - President of the United States, 2001-Present.
  • Eliot Spitzer - Current Governor of New York.
  • Barry McCaffrey - Former Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy.[43]
  • Theodore Sophocleus - Democrat Maryland Delegate.[44]
  • Carol Lam - Former California United States Attorney.
  • Bonnie Dumanis - Current District Attorney for San Diego County, California.[45]
  • Bill Clinton - 42nd President of the United States, 1993-2000.
  • Janet Reno - Former United States Attorney General.[46]
  • Donna Shalala - Former Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  • Andy Garcia - Actor.[47]

Pharmacologic THC and THC derivatives

In the USA, the FDA has approved two cannabinoids for use as medical therapies: dronabinol and nabilone. It is important to note that these medicines are not smoked. Dronabinol is a synthetic THC medication[48], while nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid marketed under the brand name Cesamet.

Medication Year approved Licensed indications
Nabilone 1985 Nausea of cancer chemotherapy that has failed to respond adequately to other antiemetics
Marinol 1992 Nausea of cancer chemotherapy that has failed to respond adequately to other antiemetics, AIDS wasting

These medications are usually used when first line treatments for nausea fail to work. In extremely high doses and in rare cases there is a possibility of "psychotomimetic" side effects. The other commonly-used antiemetic drugs are not associated with these side effects.

The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the treatment of multiple sclerosis;[49] this medication may now be legally imported into the United Kingdom and Spain on prescription.[50] Dr. William Notcutt is one of the chief researchers that has developed Sativex, he has been working with GW and founder Geoffrey Guy since the company's inception in 1998. Notcutt states that the use of MS as the disease to study "had everything to do with politics."[51]

Criticism

See also: Health issues and the effects of cannabis

On 20 April 2006, The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory against medical marijuana stating that, "marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Furthermore, there is currently sound evidence that smoked marijuana is harmful." [18]. Some prominent American societies have been reluctant to endorse medicinal cannabis. For example: [19], the National Multiple Sclerosis Society [20] , the American Academy of Ophthalmology [21] and the American Cancer Society [22]. (Federal Register, 1992).

On June 6 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down a decision which approved the Federal Government's position that federal law permits the prosecution of persons possessing cannabis regardless of the defense that they are medicinal cannabis patients, even in states that exempt its prohibition for medicinal purposes.. [23]

The Institute of Medicine, run by the United States National Academy of Sciences and funded by the United States federal government, conducted a comprehensive study in 1999 to assess the potential health benefits of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids. The study concluded that smoking cannabis is not recommended for the treatment of any disease condition, but did conclude that nausea, appetite loss, pain and anxiety can all be mitigated by marijuana. While the study expressed reservations about smoked marijuana due to the health risks associated with smoking, the study team concluded that until another mode of ingestion was perfected that could provide the same relief as smoked marijuana, there was no alternative. In addition, the study pointed out the inherent difficulty in marketing a non patentable herb. Pharmaceutical companies will not substantially profit unless there is a patent. For those reasons, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is little future in smoked cannabis as a medically approved medication. The report also concluded for certain patients, such as the terminally ill or those with debilitating symptoms, the long-term risks are not of great concern.[52]

In an unpublished 2001 study by the Mayo Clinic, Marinol was shown to be less effective than megestrol acetate in helping cancer patients regain lost appetites.[53]

In 2003, the American Academy of Ophthalmology released a position statement asserting that "no scientific evidence has been found that demonstrates increased benefits and/or diminished risks of marijuana use to treat glaucoma compared with the wide variety of pharmaceutical agents now available." [54]

Legal and medical status of cannabis

Main article: Legal and medical status of cannabis

    Cannabis is in Schedule IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, making it subject to special restrictions. Article 2 provides for the following, in reference to Schedule IV drugs:

A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party.

This provision, while apparently providing for the limitation of cannabis to research purposes only, also seems to allow some latitude for nations to make their own judgments. The official Commentary on the Single Convention indicates that Parties are expected to make that judgment in good faith.

Further reading

  • Official FDA Statement Regarding Claims of Smoked Marijuana as medicine
  • Report on and index of marijuana medical studies by Todd Mikuriya, M.D.]
  • Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group; Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T: Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jul 20;24(21):3394-400.
    • Synthetic THC or low doses of cannabis extract administered orally for cancer-related cachexia (anorexia, weight-loss, emaciation) not better than placebo.
  • Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A Benson, Jr., "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base", Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999).
    • "The accumulated data indicate a potential therapeutic value for cannabinoid drugs, particularly for symptoms such as pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation." and "At this point there are no convincing data to support (the concern that medical marijuana would lead to an increase in recreational use). The existing data are consistent with the idea that this would not be a problem if the medical use of marijuana were as closely regulated as other medications with abuse potential."
  • Index of studies involving marijuana and multiple sclerosis
  • Doblin et al., Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Experiences and Attitudes," Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 1991.
  • Khamsi, R: Cannabis compound benefits blood vessels. Nature, 4 Apr 2005 (premium content).
    • THC has been found to combat formation of arterial blockages. A random survey of oncologists found that 44% had illegally recommended marijuana for the control of vomiting and that 48% would do so if it were legal; 54% thought it should be available by prescription.
  • Vinciguerra et al., Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy," The New York State Journal of Medicine, pgs., 525-527, October 1988
    • 56 Patients who had achieved no success with other antiemetics; 72% found success — the study also concluded that smoked marijuana was more effective than oral THC pills.
  • Chang et al., Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High Dose Methotrexate; Annals of Internal Medicine, Volume 91, Number 6, pg. 819-824, December 1979
    • A double-blind controlled study found a 72% reduction in nausea and vomiting; the study also concluded that smoked marijuana was more effective than oral THC
  • Foltin RW, Brady JV, Fischman MW: Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Sep;25(3):577-82.; RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF: Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite. 1988 Aug;11(1):1-14.; and Greenberg I, Kuehnle J, Mendelson JH, Bernstein JG: Effects of marihuana use on body weight and caloric intake in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1976 Aug 26;49(1):79-84.
    • These three studies concluded that marijuana increases appetite.
  • Sallan SE, Zinberg NE, Frei E 3rd: Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 1975 Oct 16;293(16):795-7.
    • Study concluded that smoked marijuana was more beneficial than synthetic THC for some patients.
  • Donald P. Tashkin, MD, "Effects of Smoked Marijuana on the Lung and Its Immune Defenses: Implications for Medicinal Use in HIV-Infected Patients"; Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 1, No. 3/4, 2001, pp. 87-102
    • "Frequent marijuana use can cause airway injury, lung inflammation and impaired pulmonary defense against infection. The major potential pulmonary consequences of habitual marijuana use of particular relevance to patients with AIDS is superimposed pulmonary infection, which could be life threatening in the seriously immonocompromised patient. In view of the immonosuppressive effect of THC, the possibility that regular marijuana use could enhance progression of HIV infection itself needs to be considered, although this possibility remains unexplored to date."
  • Guy A. Cabral, PhD, "Marijuana and Cannabinoids: Effects on Infections, Immunity, and AIDS"; Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 1, No. 3/4, 2001, pp. 61-85
    • "However, few controlled longitudinal epidemiological and immunological studies have been undertaken to correlate the immunosuppressive effects of marijuana smoke or cannabinoids on the incidence of infections or viral disease in humans. Clearly, additional investigation to resolve the long-term immunological consequences of cannabinoid and marijuana use as they relate to resistance to infections in humans is warranted."
  • Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk IH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P: Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Med J Aust. 1979 Dec 15;2(12):657-9.
    • In children receiving cancer chemotherapy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has an antinausea and antivomiting effect.
  • Sallan SE, Cronin C, Zelen M, Zinberg NE: Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine. N Engl J Med. 1980 Jan 17;302(3):135-8.
    • THC seems to be an effective antiemetic in many patients who receive chemotherapy for cancer and for whom other antiemetics are ineffective.
  • New Studies Destroy the Last Objection to Medical Marijuana

See also

  • Patients Out of Time
  • Coalition to Reschedule Cannabis
  • Health issues and the effects of cannabis
  • Ed Rosenthal
  • Tilden's Extract
  • Sativex
  • Victor Robinson
  • Steve Kubby
  • NORML
  • California Cannabis Research Medical Group
  • Cannabis Buyers Club
  • Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
  • Proposition 215
  • Legality of cannabis by country
  • MMJ ACTION NETWORK

References

  • Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, International Narcotics Control Board.
  • Dominik Wujastyk, "Cannabis in Traditional Indian Herbal Medicine" in Ana Salema (ed.), Ayurveda at the Crossroads of Care and Cure, Lisbon, Centro de História del Além-Mar, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2002, pp.45--73. ISBN 972-98672-5-9. Early pre-publication draft.

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/studychart.htm
  2. ^ http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=3376
  3. ^ http://www.mpp.org/site/c.glKZLeMQIsG/b.1086505/k.AF5A/About.htm
  4. ^ AlterNet: DrugReporter: New Studies Expose Government Lies About Medical Pot. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  5. ^ http://www.druglibrary.org/olsen/MEDICAL/YOUNG/young.html
  6. ^ [http://www.fda.gov/ola/2004/marijuana0401.html
  7. ^ http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/StatePrograms.htm
  8. ^ http://www.zauberpilz.com/golden/g31-40.htm
  9. ^ Indalecio Lozano PhD (2001), "The Therapeutic Use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic Medicine", Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1 (1): 63-70
  10. ^ History of Cannabis
  11. ^ http://www.marijuanalibrary.org/AMA_opposes_1937.html
  12. ^ http://www.zauberpilz.com/golden/g31-40.htm
  13. ^ http://www.lycos.com/info/cannabis--effects.html
  14. ^ http://www.ardpark.org/reference/synmjcompare.htm
  15. ^ http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/cost.htm
  16. ^ http://www.cannabis-med.org/membersonly/mo.php?aid=2001-03-04&fid=2001-03-04-7&mode=a&sid=
  17. ^ http://www.medicalcannabis.com/PDF/Chronic_Cannabis.pdf
  18. ^ http://www.denverpost.com/ci_5260012
  19. ^ Cannabis Vaporizer Combines Efficient Delivery of THC with Effective Suppression of Pyrolytic Compounds By D. Gieringer et.al. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 4(1) 2004, [1]
  20. ^ Evaluation of a Vaporizing Device (Volcano) for the Pulmonary Administration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. By A. HAZEKAMP, R. RUHAAK, et.al. JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, VOL. 95, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 abstract
  21. ^ Dale Gieringer, "Medical Use of Cannabis in California," in Franjo Grotenhermen, M.D. & Ethan Russo, M.D., ed., Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Potential, Haworth Press, 2002 [2]
  22. ^ [3]
  23. ^ Meyer, Robert J.. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  24. ^ [4]
  25. ^ Ron Paul profile on MarijuanaProCon
  26. ^ "In Pot We Trust " at IMDB.
  27. ^ Taking Action: Montel Williams on medical marijuana (english) (2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  28. ^ [5]
  29. ^ [6]
  30. ^ [7]
  31. ^ "American Psychiatric Association Assembly Backs Medical Marijuana Patient Protection." Marijuana Policy Project, press release, November 7, 2007.[8] "In a unanimous vote, the Assembly of the American Psychiatric Association has approved a strongly worded statement supporting legal protection for patients using medical marijuana with their doctor's recommendation."
  32. ^ [9]
  33. ^ [10]
  34. ^ [11]
  35. ^ [12]
  36. ^ [13]
  37. ^ [14]
  38. ^ Rush Limbaugh (html). Biography of Rush Limbaugh. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  39. ^ Asa Hutchinson (html). Biography of Asa Hutchinson. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  40. ^ Richard Carmona (html). Biography of Richard Carmona. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  41. ^ William J. Bennett (html). Biography of William J. Bennett. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  42. ^ Romney Confronted (html). CNN Video - Breaking News. CNN (2007-10-08). Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
  43. ^ http://www.abanet.org/irr/hr/fall97/marijuan.html
  44. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4183/is_20020326/ai_n10049189
  45. ^ http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/politics/20061106-9999-1n6prop215.html
  46. ^ http://rwor.org/a/v19/920-29/920/medmj.htm
  47. ^ http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/4030.html
  48. ^ FDA Press Release
  49. ^ Koch, W. 23 Jun 2005. Spray alternative to pot on the market in Canada. USA Today (online). Retrieved on 27 Feb 2007
  50. ^ Europe: Sativex Coming to England, Spain. Retrieved on 2006-03-25.
  51. ^ Greenberg, Gary. "Respectable Reefer", Mother Jones, 2005-11-01. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 
  52. ^ Cannabis and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," Institute of Medicine, 1999.
  53. ^ Cannabis Appetite Boost Lacking in Cancer Study" The New York Times, May 13, 2001.
  54. ^ American Academy of Ophthalmology. Complementary Therapy Assessment: Marijuana in the Treatment of Glaucoma. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
  • Bibliography: Cannabis canadensis. Advances in the History of Psychology, York University
  • Cannabis Compassion Corner A not-for-profit online cannabis compassion club.
  • Debate On California's Pot Shops from CBS news show 60 Minutes
  • DrugScience.org provides scientific and other material regarding the medical use of cannabis.
  • Medical Marijuana ProCon.org - Should marijuana be a medical option?
  • VIDEO: Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the 21st Century: Medical Marijuana Dr. David Bearman speaks at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, November 2007.
  • Waiting to Inhale - The first documentary to examine the movement to legalize cannabis for medical use
  • Medical Marijuana Club Directory
International organizations
  • International Association for Cannabis as Medicine (IACM)
National organizations
  • American Alliance for Medical Cannabis (AAMC)
  • Americans for Safe Access (ASA)
  • Compassionate Coalition
  • Drug Policy Alliance (DPA)
  • Marijuana Policy Project (MPP)
  • Medical Marijuana of America
  • The Medical Marijuana Museum
  • National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML)
  • Patients Out of Time (POT)
  • The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation (THC Foundation)
Local organizations
  • Marijuana Anti-Prohibition Project (MAPP) Riverside County, California
  • OC Caregivers - Orange County, California
  • The Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana (WAMM) Santa Cruz, California
  • WeedConnection Southern California
  • California NORML California
  • Iowans for Medical Marijuana Iowa
  • Alternative Medicine Outreach Program Douglas County, Oregon
  • Rhode Island Patient Advocacy Coalition - Rhode Island
  • The BC Compassion Club Society British Columbia
  • The Montreal Compassion Center Montreal, Quebec


 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Medical_cannabis". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE