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Moonshine



 

Moonshine is a common slang term for home-distilled alcohol, especially in places where this production is illegal.

The name is often assumed to be derived from the fact that moonshine producers and smugglers would often work at night (i.e. under the light of the moon) to avoid arrest for producing illegal liquor. The 1811 edition of the Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, originally by Francis Grose, defines "moonshine" as follows: "A matter or mouthful of moonshine; a trifle, nothing. The white brandy smuggled on the coasts of Kent and Sussex, and the gin in the north of Yorkshire, are also called moonshine."[1] It has been suggested that the term might derive from smugglers' explaining away their boxes and barrels as "mere moonshine" (that is, nothing).[2]

Moonshine is made by yeast fermenting a sugar source to produce ethanol and then separating the alcohol from the fermenting mixture (the mash) through distillation using a still. Because of its illegal nature in many states and simple production, moonshine is usually not aged in barrels as are other, similarly-produced liquors such as whisky or bourbon, and it sometimes contains impurities, off flavors, and toxins such as methanol that the more sophisticated distillation methods of commercial distilleries are able to control. In popular culture, moonshine is usually presented as being extremely strong and in North America is commonly associated with the Southern United States, and Appalachia.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Product safety

Sloppily-produced moonshine can be contaminated with toxins, mainly from materials used in construction of the still. Despite the well-known hazards, it is claimed that stills constructed using car radiators for a condenser are still used. The lead used in soldering these radiators often contaminates the moonshine, and in some cases, glycol products from antifreeze used in the radiator can appear as well. Both are poisonous and potentially deadly.

Although the total amount of methanol does not normally increase due to distillation,[3] its concentration can still potentially rise to dangerous levels in amateur conditions, especially when the distillation is performed for a large batch.

Any alcohol over 100 US proof (i.e. 50% ABV) is very flammable and easily ignitable. This is especially true during the distilling process in which vaporized alcohol can accumulate in the air if there is not enough ventilation.

Mixtures

Occasionally moonshine is deliberately mixed with industrial alcohol-containing products, including methanol and other substances to produce denatured alcohol. Results are toxic, with methanol easily capable of causing blindness and death.

In the past moonshine has been mixed with beading oil or lye, to fool people into believing that it is of a higher proof. This is due to the fact that when shaken, bubbles form on the surface relative to the alcoholic strength (known as "the bead"). Large bubbles with a short duration indicate higher proof.

Tests

A common "folk" quality test for moonshine was to pour a small quantity of it into a metal spoon and set it alight, the theory being that safe distillate burns with a blue flame, but tainted distillate burns with a yellow flame. Practitioners of this simple test sometimes held that if a radiator coil had been used as a condenser there would be lead in the alcohol, which would give a reddish flame. This led to the phrase: "Lead burns red and makes you dead."[citation needed]and "what burns blue will make your blues go away" Of course, these tests should not be relied upon to test the purity of moonshine or any other distilled alcohol, especially since the flame color test, while able to catch fuel oils, does not catch methanol.

Another test used for moonshine is to "proof" what you are buying. They would pour a small amount of gun powder in a dish with the moonshine. You put a match or lighter to it and if the mixture starts to flame it is "proofed." In other words if it lights then it contains a good amount of alcohol for you to but if it does not flame then the supposed moonshine has been watered down.


Moonshine worldwide

Armenia

  The Armenian name for moonshine is aragh (the word comes from Arabic araq عرق, meaning "sweat" or "juice"); however, the Armenian word oghee is used more often. The production of oghee is widespread in Armenia. White mulberry, grape, cornelian cherry, plum, and apricot moonshine are especially popular, particularly in the countryside.

Australia

Home-distillation of alcohol is illegal in Australia, but the law is rarely enforced. The sale of stills up to 5 litre capacity and other distilling equipment, including yeasts, flavourings and other ingredients specific to distillation, is legal. Brewery supply stores have permission to sell larger stills, typically up to 25 L.

Brazil

In Brazil there is a long tradition of home distilling, especially in the rural areas, which means that the knowledge to produce liquors is relatively widespread. Artisanal liquors (specially cachaça and wine made in small farms) tend to be of good quality and are prized by collectors. One form that can be qualified as moonshine is known as "Maria Louca" ("Crazy Mary"). It's basically an aguardente made in jails by inmates. It can be made from many cereals, ranging from corn to rice, using improvised equipment.

Bulgaria

The national spirit in Bulgaria is called "Rakia" [ракия], from Turkish "rakı". It is usually made from grapes, but other fruits are used as well, such as plum, raspberry or peach. Rakia is the most popular drink in Bulgaria along with wine. Like wine, it is very often produced by villagers themselves, either in a community owned (public) still, or in more simple devices at home. Home made Rakia is considered to be of better quality and "safer" than Rakia made in factories, since there were, especially during the 1990s, a lot of counterfeit products in the stores. By tradition, distilling a certain amount of Rakia for home use is free of taxes. In connection with Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007, there were government decisions to raise taxes on home made spirits. This led to a series of protest meetings in late 2006 and early 2007. With respect to local traditions and the usually poor performance of state institutions in Bulgaria, there is little risk that the new taxes will be paid in fact. In Bulgarian tradition, drinking ракия always goes hand in hand with eating little dishes (then called mese [мезе]), usually some kind of salad, e.g. Shopska salad.

Canada

The common name for home-made alcohol is Moonshine. Early versions were probably made from potato skins due to the large amount of potatoes produced on PEI but these days most people making it at home use molasses as a sugar source.

Colombia

In Colombia moonshine is called "Tapetusa" or "Chirrinchi" and is of illegal manufacture. However it is quite popular in some regions and has been traditional for hundreds of years. The cost of tapetusa is a fraction of the heavily taxed legal alcoholic beverages. The aborigines used to make their own version of alcoholic drink called "Chicha" even before the arrival of Europeans. Chicha is usually made of corn, corn is chewed and spat in an earthen container that was then buried for some time (weeks). The latter is a special kind of alcoholic beverage, and similar to the made by Chilean Indians (Mapuches), but in Chile a fully legal version of Chicha, made of the apple ferment, sells in September.

Additionally, in the Caribbean coast of Colombia, the Wayuu tribe produces the "Chirrinche" which is both for local consume and trade with tourists. Chirrinche is regarded to be a very strong spirit and often produces a severe hangover.[citation needed]


Croatia

In Croatia, moonshine is legal. They start making wine and the remaining alcohol left is made into moonshine known as Rakija. It is 80% alcohol.

Czech Republic

Czech traditionally made from distilling plums and is known as 'Slivovice'. Traditionally produced in many garages and cellars, nowadays it is created by specialist distillers using plums provided by individuals to prevent dangerously high methanol content. It is found especially in the region of Moravia and is a popular part of celebrations including wedding parties.

Denmark

In Denmark, moonshine is referred to as hjemmebrændt (home burnt).

Dominican Republic

In Dominican Republic, moonshine is called cleren in the towns near the border with Haiti and Pitrinche in the eastern towns. Is made from sugar or fermented sugar cane. It's production is illegal but the law is rarely enforced. Also, there's Berunte, fermented from either corn which is the most common, rice, mellon, pineapple or wheat which has a growing demand among the populace.

Ecuador

In Ecuador, moonshine is often distilled from sugarcane, and referred to as Puro, Spanish for pure.

Finland

Finnish moonshine is home-made vodka, usually made from any fermentable carbohydrates, most commonly grain, sugar or potato. The most common name is pontikka. It is said that this name came about due to the poor quality French wine from Pontacq. Other names are kotipolttoinen (home burnt), ponu (an abbreviation of pontikka), ponantsa (another abbreviation of pontikka, and a joke of Bonanza), tuliliemi (fire sauce), moscha (the most common Finland-Swedish term, which in fact is "Swenglish" for moonshine. The term was first used by emigrants who had returned home from America. The word moscha is nowadays integrated in the Swedish dialect in southern Ostrobotnia on the mid-west coast of Finland.), korpiroju (wildwood junk) or korpikuusen kyyneleet (tears of wildwood spruce) as stills often are located in remote and inaccessible places.

Unlicensed moonshining is illegal in Finland, but it is often considered a challenge or hobby. In practice prosecution follows only if the authorities become aware that the product is being sold. Most Finnish moonshiners use simple pot stills and flash distillation. Some have constructed sophisticated reflux or rock stills for fractional distillation, containing plate columns or packed columns, with reflux filling components of Raschig rings, crushed glass, nuts, glass pellets or steel wool. The city of Kitee is the most famous Finnish "moonshine-city". A legitimate brand of vodka called "Kiteen kirkas" ("Kitee's Clear") is available commercially.

France

Eau de vie, gnôle, goutte, lambic, fine, or more generically the simple name of the fruit they were distilled from -- poire (Pear), prune (Plum), mirabelle (Mirabelle) -- there is a wide variety of terms in French to speak of strong alcohols, which also reflects the wide variety of recipes and ingredients available to make them. There are strong local traditions depending on the provinces : lambic or calvados is distillated from cider in Brittany and Normandy, mirabelle, prune and kirsch are mainly produced in the East (Alsace, Lorraine, Bourgogne, Champagne), and of course every wine-producing region has, to some extent, a tradition of making brandy, the most famous being Cognac and Armagnac.

Unlicensed moonshining was tolerated in France up to the late 50's : having an ancestor who fought in Napoleon's armies automatically gave you the right to distillate a given quantity of alcohol (the equivalent of 10 liters of pure alcohol a year) for your own consumption. Since 1959 that right can no longer be transferred to the descendants, therefore only a few bouilleurs de cru are still exercising their rights nowadays. Owning a registered fruit orchard or a vineyard still gives you a right to have your production distillated, but it is no longer free, and you have to hire a licensed distillator to do so; the excise amounts to 7.50 € per litre of pure alcohol for the first 10 litres, and 14.50 € per litre above that limit.

Georgia

In Georgia the traditional grape moonshine is called chacha. Recently, with modernized distilling and aging technology, chacha is promoted as "Georgian brandy" or "Georgian vodka", and is compared to grappa.

Germany

In Germany, moonshine is called Schwarzgebrannter. The term is very often translated "black burned" since the German word schwarz literally means black, but in this case schwarz means illegal. Therefore, a better translation is "liquor burned illegally". Generally, home-distillation of alcohol is illegal in Germany, but there are exceptions. Ownership and use of very small stills up to 0.5 litre capacity is legal. Such small stills are only used by hobbyist and the products of these hobbyists are not available on the black market. The ownership of larger stills must be reported to fiscal authorities, otherwise it is illegal, and the use of these stills always requires a licence. The German market for moonshine is limited, in part because legal alcohol is relatively inexpensive, compared to some other Western Europen countries and in part because controls are generally considered to be quite effective. Both facts are negative for prospective profits of commercial moonshiners. German home-distilled alcohol is in very most cases a type of traditional German schnaps, often a type of fruit brandy. There are many legal and often very small distilleries in Germany. Most of these small distilleries are located in Southern Germany, belong to farms and are, in fact, home-distilleries. These producers of distilled beverages are called Abfindungs-Brennerei and the operation of these small distilleries requires a special type of licence for home-distilleries. The number of such licences is strictly limited and it is therefore very difficult to get it since in most cases all available licences are already in use. An Abfindungs-Brennerei is only allowed to produce a limited amount of pure alcohol per year and the operation of the still is limited to some months of the year. There are tight controls of these limitations. The products of an Abfindungs-Brennerei, although in many cases home-distilled, are not considered to be Schwarzgebrannter since they are taxed and legal.

Greece

In Greece moonshine is referred to as Raki (Greek:ρακή) in the island of Crete, Tsikoudia (Greek:τσικουδιά) and Tsipouro (Greek:τσίπουρο) in other parts of the country.

Guatemala

The broadest term for Guatemalan moonshine is cusha. It is popular in large regions of the countryside, where it is made by fermenting fruits, particularly for mayan festivities. If forbidden, nobody is prosecuting its manufacture. Cusha is also a valuable for shamans, who consume it during cleansing ceremonies and spit their "patients" with it.

Hungary

Hungarian moonshine is called házipálinka (pálinka is a Hungarian spirit, házi means 'from home') which refers to the fact that it has been made at home. It is mostly made in rural areas where the ingredients, which are usually fruits, are widely available. Its production is considered illegal if distilled at home as the distillation process constitutes a tax fraud if not carried out at a licensed distillery.

Iceland

Icelandic moonshine (Landi) is largely made by hobbyists as a protest against the high liquor taxes levied by the government. Due to the lack of natural cover and harsh weather conditions, most "moonshining" activity occurs indoors in a controlled environment. Although potatoes are the most common constituent of Icelandic moonshine, any carbohydrate can be used, including stale bread. Landi is often drunk by teenagers who can't buy liquor at the stores.

India

Locally produced moonshine is known in India as desi, desi daroo, tharra, dheno, mohua, Narangi, kaju and santra (also known in different parts of the country under other names). It is made by fermenting the mash of sugar cane pulp in large spherical containers made from waterproof ceramic (terra cota) up to near 100% alcohol. However, it is a dangerous drink, mainly because of the risk of alcohol or copper formaldehyde poisoning. In South India, moonshine is any alcoholic drink that is prepared outside the distilleries, out of the tight liquor-control. Toddy and arrack are not synonyms or Indian names for moonshine liquor. Toddy is an alcoholic beverage made from the sap of palm trees, and arrack refers to strong spirits made traditionally from fermented fruit juices, and the sap of the palm tree. In the Indian state of Goa, a locally produced cashew flavoured drink Feni is very popular among the locals and the tourists as well.

Ireland

Look up poteen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Grain or potato based moonshine made illegally in Ireland is called poitín. The term is a diminutive of the word pota 'a pot'.

Italy

Clandestine distillation of alcohol was common in the once poor eastern parts of Italy, but with tighter control over the supply of distillation equipment its popularity has slumped. Nowadays, the supply of production equipment larger than three litres is controlled, and anything smaller must bear a sign stating that moonshine production is illegal.[4]

On the island of Sardinia, one can still find local varieties of grappa which are dubbed 'filuferru', the local pronunciation for 'iron-thread'; this peculiar name comes from the fact that grappa stills were buried to hide them from authorities with iron-thread tied to them for later retrieval.

Kenya

Illegally distilled alcohol is widely made in Kenya, known as "Changaa", "Kumi kumi" or "Kill me quick". It is mostly made from maize and produced with crude stills made from old oil drums. Costs are typically Ksh. 50 per glass. It has been known to cause blindness and death. This may be caused by unscrupulous adulteration by sellers who want to give the beverage more 'kick', for example, adding battery acid. It may be caused by impure distillation. Because use is so widespread in Kenya the government has little control and has considered legalization to try avert deaths.

Laos

In Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic) the home distillation of spirits is technically illegal, although this law is rarely enforced. 'Lao Lao' is the name given to home-produced liquor, and it is drunk openly especially in rural areas, with many small villages operating a communal still. Usually brewed from rice, it varies from well produced, smooth tasting liquor to very rough spirit with a lot of impurities.

Malawi

In Malawi moonshine is commonly brewed and distilled by women in townships and villages. Known as "katchasu" in Chichewa, various sources of starch may be used including potatoes, sugar cane or maize. Although technically illegal, there is no social stigma attached to moderate consumption.

Malaysia

In the state of Sarawak in Malaysia moonshine is called 'Langkau'. This is made from fermented rice wine and cook in a barrel with a little hose hanging from the top of the barrel. Some rural folks like to drink 'Langkau' at a festival and most of the time during leisure hours. Do not over consume. Its dangerous. Much stronger than to compare with [1]

Republic of Macedonia

The Republic of Macedonia is a country where moonshine is not only legal, but is also the liquor of choice. Typically, the moonshine is made out of grapes, which are the leftovers from the production of wine, but also made from plums (Slivovica). Macedonian moonshine is highly popular because it is commonly used for medicinal purposes. This process usually uses diluted moonshine with caramelized sugar, and the liquor is then boiled and consumed while still hot.

Mexico

In some parts of Mexico, particularly in the Copper Canyon region, lechuguilla is fermented to make a clear moonshine called, fittingly, lechuguilla. It is consumed openly, especially by the residents at the bottom of the canyon.

Myanmar

Myanmar has several forms of moonshine. Although it is illegal, moonshine has majority share of the alcohol market especially in rural areas of the country. In the country side, moonshine shares the alcohol market with what some call palm wine.

New Zealand

New Zealand is one of the few Western countries where home distillation is legal. In New Zealand, stills and instruction in their use are sold openly. Hokonui Moonshine was produced in Southland by early settlers whose (then) illegal distilling activities gained legendary status. Hokonui Moonshine is now produced legally and comercially by the Southern Distilling Company which has recently started to export it.

Nigeria

In Nigeria, home based brewing is illegal. Moonshine is variously called 'ogogoro', 'kainkain', 'abua first eleven', 'agbagba', 'akpeteshi', 'aka mere', 'push me, I push you', 'crazy man in the bottle', or 'Sapele water' depending on locality.

Norway

Due to the very high taxation of alcohol, moonshine production primarily from potatoes and sugar continues to be a popular, albeit illegal, activity in various parts of the country. This is especially true for the Mid- and North-Norwegian regions, and otherwise it is mostly prominent in the rural regions. Norwegian moonshine is called "Hjemmebrent" or "Heimebrent" (which translates into English as "home-burnt") and sometimes also "Heimkok" (meaning "home-cooked") or "Heimert" (slang) in Norwegian, and the mash is called "Sats". In the county of Telemark mash is also referred to as "Bæs". In the old days on Finnskogen they called the mash Skogens vin ("The Wine of the Forest"), a name mostly used by the poorer people without access to distilling equipment. When talking to foreigners, some Norwegians use the term "Something local" about their moonshine. In Norway, moonshine is commonly enjoyed mixed with coffee, and sometimes a spoon of sugar. This drink is known as Karsk, and has a special tie to the mid-Norwegian regions while it is also enjoyed elsewhere. A common joke is that the traditional mixture was made by brewing the strongest, blackest coffee possible, then putting a 5 Øre piece (a copper coin of size and color of a pre-decimalization English penny, no longer in circulation) in a cup. Add coffee to the cup until the coin can no longer be seen, then add Hjemmebrent, straight from the still and around 180 proof, until the coin can again be seen. Then drink. (If you cover the coin with a dark fluid like coffee it won't show again in a cup, no matter how much colorless fluid you mix into it. That is because the amount of pigment between the coin and the surface remains the same. If you use a glass instead you will eventually see the coin again from the side. You can try this yourself with coffee and water.)

While brewing is permitted in Norway, distillation is not. Possession of equipment capable of distilling is also illegal.§ 8-5 .[5] The enforcement of this law is spotty at best.

Peru

Peru is one of the few countries where moonshine is completely legal. The production and sale of homemade alcoholic drinks is entirely unregulated and their consumption is common in daily meals. Pisco is one of the most common alcoholic drinks in Peru, although different types of chicha, with their generally low alcohol content, are the most popular alcoholic drinks in the country, with regional variations common in all areas. Even small children enjoy chicha as commonly as children in other countries may drink juice. This is especially true of the non-alcoholic chicha morada (violet chicha), loved by both children and adults. The low alcohol content rarely causes drunkenness or dependence, even in small children. Chicha was also consumed by the ancient Peruvians, millennia before the Incas' empire; it was apparently consumed by Chavin De Huantar, one of the first cultures on Peru and on the whole planet.

Poland

  The Polish name for moonshine is bimber; although the word samogon (from Russian) is also used. Far less common is the word księżycówka, which literally means moonshine. The tradition of producing moonshine might be traced back to the Middle Ages when tavern-owners used to manufacture vodka for local sales mainly from various kinds of grain and fruits. Later on, other means were adopted, particularly those based on fermentation of yeast with the help of sugar. Some of the moonshine is also made from distilling plums and is known under the name of śliwowica (similar to the Czech word 'slivovice'). The plum moonshine made in area of Łącko (Southern Poland) called Łącka Śliwowica gained nation-wide fame, with tourists travelling long distances to buy one or two bottles of this strong liquor. Because of the climate and density of the population, most of the activity occurred indoors.

In Poland, the simplest recipe for producing moonshine by fermentation of yeast with the use of 1 kilogram of sugar, 4 liters of water, and 10 dag (= 100 g) of yeast is jokingly abbreviated as 1410 - the year of the Battle of Grunwald, most famous victory of Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and their allies over the Knights of the Teutonic Order in the Middle Ages.

Under Polish law it is illegal to manufacture moonshine, which was confirmed by the Supreme Court’s ruling of 30 November 2004. Selling home-made alcohol is also a tax offence as there is an excise imposed on sale of alcohol, and there is no provision for those manufacturing alcohol illegally to pay this duty even should they want to. In reality the law is not consistently enforced, the one example of turning blind eye being the authorities tolerating large-scale manufacture and open sale to the public of the above mentioned Śliwowica Łącka moonshine.

Puerto Rico

The common Puerto Rican term for moonshine rum is pitorro, which comes from the Andalusian term "pintorro", given to a white wine (or rum, near the rum-producing sugar cane fields of Málaga) of inferior quality which still has some grape (in the case of the wine) or molasses (in the case of rum) coloring in it. Other terms are pitrinche, cañita (based on the thin copper tubing of the alembic in which it is produced), and lágrima de mangle ("mangrove's tears" given the tendency of artisan distillers to refine their product near coastal mangroves, as to be able to hide it from police). Cañita is a common term so popular that at least two legal brands of rum have used the name, including the current brand, "Cañita Cura'o". Pitorro is an integral part of Puerto Rican culture, and musical odes to it or its production (such as the plena "Los Contrabandistas", popularized by Puerto Rican singer Daniel Santos) are part of local folklore.

Pitorro is usually much stronger than commercial rum: at times its alcohol content surpasses the common 80- or 90-proof (40% or 45% alcohol per volume) mark; some raids have led to confiscation of rum that is up to 80% alcohol per volume (165 proof). Recipes abound, but common practices include "curing" the distilled product by burying jugs of pitorro in the ground, as well as placing grapes, prunes, or breadfruit seeds inside of them.

Puerto Rico is famous worldwide for its production of (legal) rum, and since it is a major revenue-generating operation, the Puerto Rican police force, as well as agents from the local Departamento de Hacienda (Treasury Department) tend to pursue moonshine producers fervently, particularly around the Christmas season. A town famous (or infamous, depending on who describes it) for its pitorro production is Añasco, Puerto Rico.

Romania

In Romania, plum brandy is called ţuică (tzuika) or palincă (palinka), depending on the alcohol content and the region in which it is produced. It is prepared by many people in rural areas, using traditional methods, both for private consumption and for sale. Although this is illegal, and the drink is technically moonshine, the government tolerates these practices, and does not consider this bootlegging, due to the nature of the drink. Most ţuică is sold in markets, fairs and even roadside, bottled in unlabeled PET bottles. Some communities have acquired production licences and legally produce and bottle ţuică.

Russia

The Russian name for any home-made distilled alcoholic beverage is called samogon (ru: самого́н), literally translated as "self-distillate". The most popular source for samogon is sugar as it is quite effective. Other sources include beets, corn, and even plywood. Samogon of one distillation only is called pervach (ru: первач), literally translated as "the first" - it is well known for its impressive smell. The production of samogon is widespread in Russia. It is legal only for personal use, selling is prohibited. Samogon often has a strong repulsive odor but, for lack of any other spirit, it is still very popular. It was common during the Soviet era, when products were scarce and the supply unstable.

Scotland

Illicitly produced whisky from Scotland is called peatreek. The term refers to the aroma (or reek) infused in the drink by drying the malted barley over a peat fire.

Slovakia

Probably the most common moonshine in Slovakia is slivovica, sometimes called plum brandy in English. It is notorious for its strong but enjoyable smell delivered by plums from which it is distilled. The typical amount of alcohol is around 50% (it may vary between 40-60%). The home made slivovica is highly esteemed. It is considered a finer quality spirit compared to the industrial products which are usually not that strong (around 40%). Nowadays this difference in quality is the primary reason for its production, rather than just the economic issues. A bottle of a good home made slivovica can be a precious gift, since it cannot be bought. The only way to obtain it is by having parents or friends in rural areas who make it. Slivovica is sometimes used also as a popular medicine to cure the early stages of cold and other minor aches. Although illegal, the small home productions seem to be tolerated by the government. Several other fruits are used to produce similar home made spirits, namely pears - hruškovica and cherries - čerešňovica.

Another traditional Slovak moonshine is called borovička, distilled from juniper berries or pine. Its flavor resembles gin but it is quite strong and can reach 50-70% alcohol.

Slovenia

In Slovenia, especially in the western part, moonshine is distilled from fermented grapes, which were left from wine production, and sugar if necessary. It is called tropinovec (tropine, means squeezed half-dried grapes, in the west of the country) or Šnops. Because it has around 60%-70% of alcohol is often mixed with boiled water to make it lighter ( vol. 50%). Tropinovec is rarely drunk in large quantities. It is often mixed with fruits (cherries, pears, etc.) to cover the strong odor and taste, or herbs (Anise, Wolf's bane, etc.) for alternative medical treatment. Home distilling is legal in Slovenia; owners of stills are obliged to register and pay excise duties (approximately 15 USD for 40-100 l stills and 30 USD for stills with capacity over 100 l). There were 20,539 registered home distillers in 2005, down from over 28,000 in 2000.

South Africa

In South Africa moonshine made from fruit (mostly peaches or marulas) is known as mampoer (named after the Pedi chief Mampuru). The equivalent product made from grapes is called witblits (white lightning. In Afrikaans the letter w is sounded as the letter v in English, so the word is pronounced 'vitblits'). Witblits has a long history in the Cape Province (over 200 years) and many producers take great pride in their product. Most witblits is therefore of a very high quality compared to typical moonshine world-wide. Even though it is illegal to distill one's own alcohol in South Africa, it is widely available from liquor stores and at farmer's markets. Skokiaan is a low-grade (often dangerous), fermented brew of variable composition widely consumed amongst poorer people in southern Africa. Although it is often referred to casually as a form of 'moonshine', this is a misnomer, because it is not a distilled product.

Sweden

The most common moonshine in Sweden (hembränt in Swedish; literally "home burnt") is made of potatoes and/or sugar. Typically of the 90 -96% ABV varient. Common nicknames are skogsstjärnan ("forest star"), garagenkorva (a wordplay on "garage" and "Koskenkorva") and Chateau de Garage (a pun on French wine brands). The production and sales of moonshine is illegal, but there are several loopholes that may be used to avoid prosecution. For instance, selling a still in parts may be legal and it may be sold for legal purposes like making your own distilled water for your car battery. Stores selling home-brewing equipment also sell products that indicate they are intended for the use of making moonshine, for instance flavorings, activated carbon, special yeasts, etc. The making of mash is legal, but distilling it is not. Distilling is often done with simple distillation, but sometimes freeze distillation is used, especially to make your own calvados or other drinks with lower alcohol content. Due to relaxed import regulation since 2005, the business has declined. Moonshine is most socially accepted in the countryside.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, home based brewing is illegal. However, this is a lucrative underground business in most parts of the island. Illicit brew is known by many names; 'Kasippu' (this is the most common and accepted name), 'Heli Arrakku' (archaic term means, Pot-Liquor), 'Kashiya' (which is a pet name derived from more mainstream term Kasippu), 'Vell Beer' (means, beer of the paddy field), 'Katukambi', 'Suduwa' (means, the white substance) depending on locality. The raw meterials used in the production are mainly common white sugar (from Sugarcane) manufactured in Sri Lanka, yeast, and urea as a calayst.

Switzerland

In Switzerland, absinthe was banned in 1910, but underground distillation continued throughout the 20th century. The Swiss constitutional ban on absinthe was repealed in 2000 during a general overhaul of the national constitution, but the prohibition was written into ordinary law instead. Later that law was also repealed, so from March 1, 2005, absinthe is again legal in its country of origin, after nearly a century of prohibition.[6] Absinthe is now not only sold in Switzerland, but is once again distilled in its Val-de-Travers birthplace, with Kübler and La Clandestine Absinthe among the first new brands to emerge, albeit with an underground heritage.

Thailand

In Thailand, home-brewed alcohol, most commonly distilled from glutinous rice, is called lao khao (literally "white liquor"). It is sometimes mixed with various herbs to produce a medicinal drink called yadong.

United States

 

Moonshine continues to be produced in the U.S., mainly in Appalachia. The simplicity of the process, and the easy availability of key ingredients such as corn and sugar, make enforcement a difficult task. However, the huge price advantage that moonshine once held over its "legitimate" competition legally sold has been reduced. Nevertheless, over half the retail price of a bottle of distilled spirits typically consists of taxes. With the availability of cheap refined white sugar, moonshine can be produced at a small fraction of the price of heavily taxed and legally sold distilled spirits. Moonshine alcohol is used by some for herbal tinctures. The number of jurisdictions which ban the sale of alcoholic beverages is steadily decreasing which means that many of the former consumers of moonshine are much nearer to a legal alcohol sales outlet than was formerly the case. Moonshine-like distilled beverages with names like Georgia Moon Corn Whiskey, Platte Valley Corn Whiskey and Catdaddy are produced commercially and sold in liquor stores, typically packaged in a clay jug or glass Mason jar. As a result of these changes, moonshine production is far less widespread than it was formerly.

Although home distillation of ethanol for commercial purposes is still illegal in the United States, legislation was introduced[7] in November 2001 to legalize home distillation in much the same way as home brewing of wine and beer were legalized in 1978. This bill had a single sponsor and did not make it out of the committee. Despite the illegal status, home distillation is growing in popularity in the U.S. with ready availability of instructions, materials and support. As early as prohibition, there have been stories of moonshiners using their product as a powerful fuel in their automobiles, usually when evading law-enforcement agencies while delivering their illegal product. The sport of "stock car" racing got its start when moonshiners would modify their automobiles to outrun federal government revenue agents.[8]

Another, far less palatable form of moonshining is the prison wine, Pruno. Essentially an orange-based drink, pruno can contain virtually any ingredient available from a prison mess.

Moonshine in popular culture

Literature

  • In Patrick Dennis' fictional biography First Lady, the early years revolve around a moonshine called "Lohocla" (alcohol spelled backwards) produced by the father of protagonist Martha Dinwiddie Butterfield. As time passes in the story the concoction is less prominent, until the time of World War II, when the now-aged Martha Dinwiddie Butterfield donates her father's original formula for Lohocla to the United States government, which uses it in the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.
  • IN WO Mitchell's Who Has Seen the Wind _ joins the local congregation and becomes the church janitor allowing him to produce moonshine in the church basement until it explodes during the Sunday sermon.

Movies

  • In the movie Stalag 17, featuring William Holden as prisoner of war Sgt. Sefton, Sefton's still is one of his more "profitable" ventures. Of its product, made from potato peels and a few strings from Red Cross packages, he says the house "only guarantees you won't go blind."
  • The 1958 movie Thunder Road starred Robert Mitchum as a moonshine runner who takes risks driving his family's product through the hills of Tennessee for delivery in Memphis.
  • In The Great Escape (1963), Hilts (Steve McQueen), Hendley (James Garner) and Goff (Jud Taylor) brew moonshine from potatoes to help celebrate the Fourth of July. The product is so strong, upon tasting it, they can only comment "Wow!" very hoarsely.
  • The movie "The Dukes of Hazard" depict two cousins who come into Hazard county to help their Uncle Jesse, an old moonshiner, with his business when the county's leader Boss Hogg threatened to put him in prison.

Music

  • Moonshine appears in a number of artists' songs, like James Taylor, John Denver, Steve Earle, Jimmy Buffett and Hank Williams Jr.. Dolly Parton sang a song called "Daddy's Moonshine Still". American country-roots singer/songwriter Gillian Welch released a moonshiner's dying lament, "Tear My Stillhouse Down".
  • George Jones' 1959 chart-topping song "White Lightning" tells the story of a North Carolina moonshiner. "Well in North Carolina, way back in the hills, lived my ol' pappy and he had him a still. He brewed white lightning 'til the sun went down. Then, he'd fill him a jug and he'd pass it around. Mighty mighty pleasin', pappy's corn squeezin'."
  • Robert Mitchum recorded a song in 1958 titled "The Ballad of Thunder Road," in which a moonshiner and his son run the stuff in a truck and the "revenooers" never catch him. At the end the son goes too fast--"He left the road at ninety," says one line. The last line of the chorus goes, "The Law they never got him 'cause the Devil got him first!"
  • Chug-a-Lug (Roger Miller song) released in 1964 sang about a young boy's first encounter with moonshine.

Television

  • Granny from the 1960s television series The Beverly Hillbillies runs a moonshine still by the Clampett family swimming pool (also referred to as the Cement pond) and refers to the product as rheumatism medicine and as an ingredient in her "spring tonic" and claims to drink only a thimbleful at a time. Several subplots of the show's episodes focused on a humorous situation involving Granny's liquor. Every cast member of the The Beverly Hillbillies was seen drinking moonshine at one point in time during the show's history.
  • Otis Campbell was the town drunk on The Andy Griffith Show. Deputy Barney Fife was always trying to find the source of Otis' moonshine.
  • The Waltons featured the elderly spinster Baldwin sisters, who, in memory of their dear departed father, keep alive the knowledge of "The Recipe." Unbenownst to them, their father was a bootlegger, and the concoction they lovingly produce from "The Recipe" is in fact moonshine whiskey.
  • In the popular television series M*A*S*H, the characters Hawkeye Pierce and Trapper John McIntyre, later replaced by B. J. Hunnicutt, made moonshine (which they usually referred to as gin) in a make-shift distillery in their tent.
  • The Dukes of Hazzard's premise was that the U.S. government caught the Duke boys' Uncle (Uncle Jessie) making moonshine, and in order to keep out of prison, Uncle Jessie signed an agreement that he would never produce any more moonshine, and that Bo and Luke Duke be put under probation (prohibiting them from doing many things, including owning firearms.)
  • In one episode of the popular 1970's show Emergency!, during the show's fourth season, three patients were admitted to Rampart Hospital with severe cases of lead poisoning caused by drinking contaminated moonshine. The threat is short-lived, however, since the house containing the still catches fire and explodes during the firemen's last call of the episode.

Miscellaneous

  • Rockstar Games', Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories, and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City storyline involves a contraband liquid aptly named "Boomshine" which is used in the game, not only as a strong alcoholic drink, but a powerful explosive.
  • Moonshine is often portrayed in the media in a clay jug marked only with XXX. Supposedly, the moonshiner would inscribe a single X on the jug each time the mixture passed through a still. This image of a jug or bottle marked XXX is used in comic strips and cartoons to depict an intoxicating beverage. For example, Drinky Crow is often shown drinking from one of these stereotypical jugs.
  • An old Appalachian proverb explains the prevalence of whiskey/bourbon/moonshine distillation in the region, describing the proclivities of the early settlers: "Where the English went, they built a house; where the Germans went, they built a barn; where the Scots-Irish went, they built a whiskey still."

References

  1. ^ "Moonshine", Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, Francis Grose, 1811. Liam's Pictures from Old Books.
  2. ^ Jonathon Green, American Dialect Society Mailing List, 31 Oct 2001.
  3. ^ "Fiction and Fact", A Step By Step Guide, Moonshine-Still.
  4. ^ "Supplemento ordinario n° 95/L", Ministero delle Finanze, 04-27-2001.
  5. ^ http://www.norgeslover.no
  6. ^ Elaine Sciolino, "Long absent, absinthe to become legal in its native Switzerland", The New York Times, as reprinted in the San Francisco Chronicle, November 4, 2004.
  7. ^ H.R. 3249, 107th Congress, U.S. Government Printing Office, 11-07-2007.
  8. ^ Mirochnik, Michael (2005). Speed of a Stock Car. The Physics Factbook.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Moonshine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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