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Multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion

Multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (sometimes Multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction; abbreviated MAD) is a technique used in X-ray crystallography that facilitates the determination of protein structures by allowing the solution of the phase problem. It uses X-rays of different wavelengths, relieving crystallographers from having to make several different metal-containing crystals.


See also

Anomalous Dispersion

  • Multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD)
  • Single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD)

Isomorphous Replacement

Two methods for providing the needed phasing information by introducing heavy atoms into isomorphous crystals:

  • Multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR); and
  • Single isomorphous replacement with anomalous signal (SIRAS)


  • Walsh MA, Evans G, Sanishvili R, Dementieva I, Joachimiak A (1999). MAD data collection - current trends. Acta Cryst, D55:1726-1732. doi:10.1107/S0907444999008392
  • Hendrickson W, Ogata C (1997). Phase determination from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction measurements. Meth Enzymol, 276:494-523.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Multi-wavelength_anomalous_dispersion". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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