My watch list  

Needle ice

  Needle ice is a phenomenon that occurs when the temperature of the soil is above 0°C and the surface temperature of the soil is below 0°C. The subterranean moisture is brought to the surface via capillary action.

The ice needles are typically a few centimetres long. While growing, they may lift or push away small soil particles. On sloped surfaces, needle ice may be a factor contributing to soil creep.[1][2]

Alternate names for needle ice are "frost column", "kammeis" (the German term), or "pipkrake" (from Swedish pipa (tube) and krake (weak, fine), coined in 1907 by Henrik Hesselman (1874 – 1943)[3]).

See also


  1. ^ Isbell, D.: Needle Ice on Mt. Osceola, EPOD of July 10, 2005. URL last accessed 2007-12-07.
  2. ^ Pidwirny, M.: Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd ed., section 10(ag), Periglacial Processes and Landforms. URL last accessed 2007-12-07.
  3. ^ Lawler, D. M.: "Some observations on needle ice", Weather, vol. 44, pp. 406–409; 1989.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Needle_ice". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE