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Red 2G


Red 2G, Acid Red 1, Food Red 10, Amidonaphthol red G, azogeranine, azophloxine, azofloxin, or C.I. 18050, is a synthetic red azo dye. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. It usually comes as a disodium salt of 8-actamido-1-hydroxy-2-phenylazonaphthalene-3,6 disulphonate.

Its CAS number is [3734-67-6] and its SMILES structure is CC(=O)Nc1cc(OS([O-])=O)cc2cc(OS([O-])=O)c(/N=N/c3ccccc3)c(O)c12.


In the European Union, Red 2G is used as a food dye (E number E128). However, it is only permitted for use in breakfast sausages with a minimum cereal content of 6% and burger meat with a minimum vegetable and/or cereal content of 4%. [1]

Following safety concerns raised by EFSA in its opinion of 5 July 2007 [2], the European Commission has prepared a draft Regulation to suspend use of E128 as a food colouring. This proposed course of action was unanimously approved by European Union Member States at a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Food Chain and Animal Health (Section Toxicological Safety of the Food Chain) on 20 July 2007 [3].

Red 2G is banned in Australia, Austria, Canada, Japan, Norway[4], Sweden, Malaysia[5] and the United States.[citation needed] It was banned in Ireland, Israel and Greece in July 2007. [6] [7].

It is relatively insensitive to the bleaching effect of sulfur dioxide (E220) and sodium metabisulfite (E223). In the intestines, Red 2G can be converted to the toxic compound aniline [8], so there are concerns Red 2G may ultimately interfere with blood haemoglobin, as well as cause cancer.

It is also used as a dye for coatings, inks, paper, crepe paper, and fine tissue.

Red 2G can be also used for staining in histology, though rarely, e.g. as a component of Masson's trichrome.

Health risks

It is one of the colourants that the Hyperactive Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children.

The EU agency EFSA recently established E128 is potentially carcinogenic as it forms aniline in the body when consumed.[9]

The pressure group The Food Commission, said there had been concerns about Red 2G going back decades and it was suspected of being a carcinogen in the 1980s[10]


  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 884/2007 of 26 July 2007 on emergency measures suspending the use of Red 2G (E 128) as food colour
  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ EFSA announcement
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ 'Food safety body bans colour additive' - RTE News
  7. ^ 'RED 2G Guilty for Cancer? - ANT1 News (Greek)'
  8. ^
  9. ^ 'Sausage additive linked to cancer' - BBC News
  10. ^ Hickman, Martin. "Additive used in sausages and burgers may cause cancer", The Independent. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Red_2G". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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