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Regulator of G protein signalling
Regulators of G protein signaling (or RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits.
Additional recommended knowledge
RGS are multi-functional, GTPase-accelerating proteins that promot e GTP hydrolysis by the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, thereby inactivating the G protein and rapidly switching off G protein-coupled receptor signalling pathways. Upon activation by GPCRs, heterotrimeric G proteins exchange GDP for GTP, are released from the receptor, and dissociate into free, active GTP-bound alpha subunit and beta-gamma dimer, both of which activate downstream effectors. The response is terminated upon GTP hydrolysis by the alpha subunit (IPR001019), which can then bind the beta-gamma dimer (IPR001632 IPR001770) and the receptor. RGS proteins markedly reduce the lifespan of GTP-bound alpha subunits by stabilising the G protein transition state.
All RGS proteins contain an RGS-box (or RGS domain), which is required for activity. Some small RGS proteins such as RGS1 and RGS4 are comprised of little more than an RGS domain, while others also contain additional domai ns that confer further functionality.
RGS domains can be found within the same protein in combination with a variety of other domains, including: DEP for membrane targeting (IPR000591), PDZ for binding to GPCRs (IPR001478), PTB for phosphotyrosine-binding (IPR006020), RBD for Ras-binding (IPR003116), GoLoco for guanine nucleotide inhibitor activity (IPR003109), PX for phosphatidylinositol-binding (IPR001683), PXA that is associated with PX (IPR003114), PH for stimulating guanine nucleotide exchange (IPR001849), and GGL (G protein gamma subunit-like) for binding G protein beta subunits (IPR001770). Those RGS proteins that contain GGL domains can interact with G protein beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent G protein gamma subunit binding and G protein alpha subunit association, thereby preventing heterotrimer formation.
Human proteins containing this domain
ADRBK1; ADRBK2; AXIN1; AXIN2; GRK1; GRK4; GRK5; GRK6; GRK7; RGS1; RGS10; RGS11; RGS12; RGS13; RGS14; RGS16; RGS17; RGS18; RGS19; RGS2; RGS20; RGS21; RGS3; RGS4; RGS5; RGS6; RGS7; RGS8; RGS9; RK; SNX13;
Categories: G proteins | Protein domains | Peripheral membrane proteins
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Regulator_of_G_protein_signalling". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|