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# Reversible process (thermodynamics)

For articles on other forms of reversibility, including reversibility of microscopic dynamics, see reversibility (disambiguation).

In thermodynamics, a reversible process, or reversible cycle if the process is cyclic, is a process that can be "reversed" by means of infinitesimal changes in some property of the system without loss or dissipation of energy.[1] Due to these infinitesimal changes, the system is at rest throughout the entire process. Since it would take an infinite amount of time for the process to finish, perfectly reversible processes are impossible. However, if the system undergoing the changes responds much faster than the applied change, the deviation from reversibility may be negligible. In a reversible cycle, the system and its surroundings will be exactly the same after each cycle.[2]

An alternative definition of a reversible process is a process that, after it has taken place, can be reversed and causes no change in either the system or its surroundings. In thermodynamic terms, a process "taking place" would refer to its transition from its initial state to its final state.

## Irreversibility

Main article: Irreversibility

A process that is not reversible is termed irreversible. In an irreversible process, finite changes are made; therefore the system is not at equilibrium throughout the process. At the same point in an irreversible cycle, the system will be in the same state, but the surroundings are permanently changed after each cycle.[2]

## Boundaries and states

A reversible process changes the state of a system in such a way that the net change in the combined entropy of the system and its surroundings is zero. Reversible processes define the boundaries of how efficient heat engines can be in thermodynamics and engineering: a reversible process is one where no heat is lost from the system as "waste", and the machine is thus as efficient as it can possibly be (see Carnot cycle).

In some cases, it is important to distinguish between reversible and quasistatic processes. Reversible processes are always quasistatic, but the converse is not always true.[1] For example, an infinitesimal compression of a gas in a cylinder where there exists friction between the piston and the cylinder is a quasistatic, but not reversible process.[3] Although the system has been driven from its equilibrium state by only an infinitesimal amount, heat has been irreversibly lost due to friction, and cannot be recovered by simply moving the piston infinitesimally in the opposite direction.

## Engineering archaisms

Historically, the term Tesla principle was used to describe (amongst other things) certain reversible processes invented by Nikola Tesla.[4] However, this phrase is no longer in conventional use. The principle was that some systems could be reversed and operated in a complementary manner. It was developed during Tesla's research in alternating currents where the current's magnitude and direction varied cyclically. During a demonstration of the Tesla turbine, the disks revolved and machinery fastened to the shaft was operated by the engine. If the turbine's operation was reversed, the disks acted as a pump.[5]