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Sorafenib (rINN), marketed as Nexavar by Bayer, is a drug approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (primary kidney cancer). It has also received "Fast Track" designation by the FDA for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer), and has since performed well in Phase III trials.
Additional recommended knowledge
It is a small molecular inhibitor of Raf kinase, PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), VEGF receptor 2 & 3 kinases and c Kit the receptor for Stem cell factor. A growing number of drugs target most of these pathways. The originality of Sorafenib lays in its simultaneous targeting of the Raf/Mek/Erk pathway.
Sorafenib was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 20, 2005 and received a E.U. marketing authorisation on July 19, 2006.
The European Commission has granted marketing authorization to Nexavar® (sorafenib) tablets for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, on October 30, 2007. .
A New England Journal of Medicine article published in January 2007 showed compared with placebo, treatment with sorafenib prolongs progression-free survival in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma in whom previous therapy has failed; the median progression-free survival was 5.5 months in the sorafenib group and 2.8 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for disease progression in the sorafenib group, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.55; P<0.01). The first interim analysis of overall survival in May 2005 showed that sorafenib reduced the risk of death, as compared with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.94; P=0.02), although this benefit was not statistically significant according to the O'Brien–Fleming threshold. Partial responses were reported as the best response in 10% of patients receiving sorafenib and in 2% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001).
At ASCO 2007, results from the SHARP trial were presented, which showed efficacy of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. The primary endpoint was overall survival, which showed a 44% improvement in patients who received sorafenib compared to placebo (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.87; p=0.0001). Both median survival and time to progression showed 3-month improvements.
Regulatory filing is planned.
Side effects of sorafenib included skin rash, hand-foot skin reactions, diarrhea, and hypertension.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sorafenib". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|