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Isotopes of krypton



There are 31 known isotopes of Krypton (Kr).[1] Naturally occurring krypton is made of five stable and one slightly radioactive isotope. Its spectral signature can be produced with some very sharp lines. 81Kr, the product of atmospheric reactions is produced with the other naturally occurring isotopes of krypton. Being radioactive it has a half-life of 250,000 years. Krypton is highly volatile when it is near surface waters and 81Kr has been used for dating old (50,000 - 800,000 year) groundwater.[2]

Additional recommended knowledge

85Kr is an inert radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 10.76 years. It is produced by fission of uranium and plutonium. It is produced by nuclear bomb testing and nuclear reactors. 85Kr is released during the reprocessing of fuel rods from nuclear reactors. Concentrations at the North Pole are 30% higher than at the South Pole as most nuclear reactors are in the northern hemisphere.[3]
Standard atomic mass: 83.798(2) u

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
69Kr 36 33 68.96518(43)# 32(10) ms 5/2-#
70Kr 36 34 69.95526(41)# 52(17) ms 0+
71Kr 36 35 70.94963(70) 100(3) ms (5/2)-
72Kr 36 36 71.942092(9) 17.16(18) s 0+
73Kr 36 37 72.939289(7) 28.6(6) s 3/2-
73mKr 433.66(12) keV 107(10) ns (9/2+)
74Kr 36 38 73.9330844(22) 11.50(11) min 0+
75Kr 36 39 74.930946(9) 4.29(17) min 5/2+
76Kr 36 40 75.925910(4) 14.8(1) h 0+
77Kr 36 41 76.9246700(21) 74.4(6) min 5/2+
78Kr 36 42 77.9203648(12) STABLE [>1.1E+20 a] 0+ 0.00355(3)
79Kr 36 43 78.920082(4) 35.04(10) h 1/2-
79mKr 129.77(5) keV 50(3) s 7/2+
80Kr 36 44 79.9163790(16) STABLE 0+ 0.02286(10)
81Kr 36 45 80.9165920(21) 2.29(11)E+5 a 7/2+
81mKr 190.62(4) keV 13.10(3) s 1/2-
82Kr 36 46 81.9134836(19) STABLE 0+ 0.11593(31)
83Kr 36 47 82.914136(3) STABLE 9/2+ 0.11500(19)
83m1Kr 9.4053(8) keV 154.4(11) ns 7/2+
83m2Kr 41.5569(10) keV 1.83(2) h 1/2-
84Kr 36 48 83.911507(3) STABLE 0+ 0.56987(15)
84mKr 3236.02(18) keV 1.89(4) µs 8+
85Kr 36 49 84.9125273(21) 10.776(3) a 9/2+
85m1Kr 304.871(20) keV 4.480(8) h 1/2-
85m2Kr 1991.8(13) keV 1.6(7) µs [1.2(+10-4) µs] (17/2+)
86Kr 36 50 85.91061073(11) STABLE 0+ 0.17279(41)
87Kr 36 51 86.91335486(29) 76.3(5) min 5/2+
88Kr 36 52 87.914447(14) 2.84(3) h 0+
89Kr 36 53 88.91763(6) 3.15(4) min 3/2(+#)
90Kr 36 54 89.919517(20) 32.32(9) s 0+
91Kr 36 55 90.92345(6) 8.57(4) s 5/2(+)
92Kr 36 56 91.926156(13) 1.840(8) s 0+
93Kr 36 57 92.93127(11) 1.286(10) s 1/2+
94Kr 36 58 93.93436(32)# 210(4) ms 0+
95Kr 36 59 94.93984(43)# 114(3) ms 1/2(+)
96Kr 36 60 95.94307(54)# 80(7) ms 0+
97Kr 36 61 96.94856(54)# 63(4) ms 3/2+#
98Kr 36 62 97.95191(64)# 46(8) ms 0+
99Kr 36 63 98.95760(64)# 40(11) ms (3/2+)#
100Kr 36 64 99.96114(54)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 0+

Notes

  • The isotopic composition refers to that in air.
  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Commercially available materials may have been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation. Substantial deviations from the given mass and composition can occur.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  1. ^ Isotopes of Krypton. Nuclear Science Division. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  2. ^ Thonnard, Norbert; Larry D. MeKay, Theodore C. Labotka (31). Development of Laser-Based Resonance Ionization Techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr Measurements in the Geosciences (English) 4-7. University of Tennessee, Institute for Rare Isotope Measurements. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  3. ^ Resources on Isotopes. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.


Isotopes of bromine Isotopes of krypton Isotopes of rubidium
Index to isotope pages
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_krypton". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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