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In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). The substrate binds with the enzyme's active site, and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate is broken down into a product and is released from the active site. The active site is now free to accept another substrate molecule. For example, in the reaction that occurs upon adding the enzyme rennin in milk, causing milk's coagulation, the substrate is milk and the enzyme is rennin. Another example is the reaction of the enzyme catalase in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, in which the enzyme is left the same and the substrate is changed.
A general equation is as follows:
where E = enzyme, S = substrate(s), P = product(s) Note that only the middle step is irreversible.
By increasing the substrate concentration, the rate of reaction will increase due to the likelihood that the number of enzyme-substrate complexes will increase; this occurs until the enzyme becomes the limiting factor.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Substrate_(biochemistry)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|