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1,4-Dichlorobenzene (para-dichlorobenzene or p-DCB) is the organic compound with the formula ClC6H4Cl. This colourless solid has an odor akin to that of camphor. It consists of two chlorine atoms substituted at opposing sites on a benzene ring. p-DCB is used a pesticide and a deodorant, most famously in mothballs in which it is a replacement for the more traditional naphthalene. p-DCB is also used as a precursor in the production of the polymer poly(p-phenylene sulfide).
Additional recommended knowledge
The chief impurity is the 1,2 isomer.
Disinfactant, deodorant, and pesticide
p-DCB is used to control moths, molds, and mildew. It finds use as a disinfectant in waste containers and restrooms and is the characteristic smell associated with urinal cakes. Its usefulness in these applications arises from p-DCB's low solubility in water and its relatively high volatility: it sublimes readily near room temperature.
Precursor to other chemicals
The chlorides on p-DCB can be substituted with oxygen, amine, and sulfide groups. A rapid growing application is in the synthesis of the high performance polymer poly(p-phenylene sulfide):
In air, 1,4-dichlorobenzene breaks down to harmless products in about one month. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene does not dissolve easily in water, and is not easily broken down by soil organisms. Like many hydrocarbons p-DCB is lipophilic and would accumulate in the fatty tissues.
There is no evidence that moderate exposure to p-DCB harms human health. The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that p-DCB may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen, although there is no direct evidence. Animals given very high levels in water developed liver and kidney tumors. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum contaminant level of 75 micrograms of p-DCB per liter of drinking water (75 μg/L). p-DCB is also an EPA-registered pesticide. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a maximum level of 75 parts of p-DCB per million parts air in the workplace (75 ppm) for an 8-hour day, 40-hour workweek.
Little information is available on how children react to p-DCB exposure.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "1,4-Dichlorobenzene". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|