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The Baker-Nathan effect in organic chemistry is an effect observed with reaction rates for certain chemical reactions with certain substrates where the order in reactivity cannot be explained solely by an inductive effect of substituents .
Additional recommended knowledge
The reaction is facilitated by electron-releasing substituents (the inductive effect) and in general the observed order (with decreasing reactivity) is tert-butyl > isopropyl > ethyl > methyl. The observed order in this particular reaction however was methyl > ethyl> i-Pr > t-butyl. In 1935 Baker and Nathan explained the observed difference in terms of a conjugation effect and in later years after the advent of hyperconjugation (1939) as its predecessor.
A fundamental problem with the effect is that differences in the observed order are relatively small and therefore difficult to measure accurately. Other researchers have found similar results or very different results. An alternative explanation for the effect is differential solvatation as orders invert on going from the solution phase to the gas phase .
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Baker-Nathan_effect". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|