To use all functions of this page, please activate cookies in your browser.
With an accout for my.chemeurope.com you can always see everything at a glance – and you can configure your own website and individual newsletter.
- My watch list
- My saved searches
- My saved topics
- My newsletter
Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid, fishy odour. Pyridine is a simple and fundamentally important heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that is structurally related to benzene, wherein one CH group in the six-membered ring is replaced by a nitrogen atom. The pyridine ring occurs in many important compounds, including the nicotinamides. Pyridine is sometimes used as a ligand in coordination chemistry. As a ligand, it is usually abbreviated py.
Additional recommended knowledge
Pyridine has a lone pair of electrons at the nitrogen atom. Because this lone pair is not delocalized into the aromatic pi-system, pyridine is basic with chemical properties similar to tertiary amines. The pKa of the conjugate acid is 5.21. Pyridine is protonated by reaction with acids and forms a positively charged aromatic polyatomic ion called pyridinium cation. The bond lengths and bond angles in pyridine and the pyridinium ion are almost identical because protonation does not affect the aromatic pi system.
Pyridine as a solvent
Pyridine is widely used as a versatile solvent, since it is polar but aprotic. It is fully miscible with a very broad range of solvents including hexane and water. Deuterated pyridine, called pyridine-d5, is a common solvent for1H NMR spectroscopy.
Role in chemical synthesis
Pyridine-borane, C5H5NBH3 (m.p. 10–11 °C) is a mild reducing agent with improved stability vs NaBH4 in protic solvents and improved solubility in aprotic organic solvents. Pyridine-sulfur trioxide, C5H5NSO3 (mp 175 °C) is a sulfonation agent used to convert alcohols to sulfonates, which in turn undergo C-O bond scission upon reduction with hydride agents.
It is also a starting material in the synthesis of compounds used as an intermediate in making insecticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, food flavorings, dyes, rubber chemicals, adhesives, paints, explosives and disinfectants. Pyridine is also used as a denaturant for antifreeze mixtures, for ethyl alcohol, for fungicides, and as a dyeing aid for textiles.
Preparation and occurrence
Many methods exist in industry and in the laboratory (some of them named reactions) for the synthesis of pyridine and its derivatives: Pyridine was originally isolated industrially from crude coal tar. It is currently synthesized from acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and ammonia, a process that involves the intermediacy of acrolein:
By substituting other aldehydes for acetaldehyde, one obtains alkyl and aryl substituted pyridines. 26,000 tons were produced worldwide in 1989.
Safety and Environmental
Pyridine is toxic with LD50 in rats (oral) of 891 mg kg–1. It is volatile and can be absorbed through skin. Available data indicate that "exposure to pyridine in drinking-water led to reduction of sperm motility at all dose levels in mice and increased estrous cycle length at the highest dose level in rats". Currently its evaluations as a possible carcinogenic agent showed there is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of pyridine, albeit there is limited evidence of carcinogenic effects on animals. Effects of an acute pyridine intoxication include dizziness, headache, nausea and anorexia. Further symptoms include abdominal pain and pulmonary congestion. Though resistant to oxidation, pyridine is readily degraded by bacteria, releasing ammonium and carbon dioxide as terminal degradation products.
Structurally or chemically related compounds are
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Pyridine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|