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Hantzsch pyridine synthesis

The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis or Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis is a multi-component organic reaction between an aldehyde such as formaldehyde, 2 equivalents of a β-keto ester such as ethyl acetoacetate and a nitrogen donor such as ammonium acetate or ammonia.[1] The initial reaction product is a dihydropyridine which can be oxidized in a subsequent step to a pyridine. The driving force for this second reaction step is aromatization.

A 1,4-dihydropyridine dicarboxylate is also called a 1,4-DHP compound or a Hantzsch compound. These compounds are an important class of calcium channel blockers and as such commercialized in for instance nifedipine, amlodipine or nimodipine.

The reaction has been demonstrated to proceed in water as reaction solvent and with direct aromatization by ferric chloride or potassium permanganate in a one-pot synthesis.[2]

The Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis is found to benefit from microwave chemistry.[3]


  1. ^ Hantzsch, A. (1881). "Condensationprodukte aus Aldehydammoniak und Ketoniartigen Verbindungen". Chemische Berichte 14: 1637-1638. doi:10.1002/cber.18810140214.
  2. ^ Jing-Jing Xia, Guan-Wu Wang. "One-Pot Synthesis and Aromatization of 1,4-Dihydropyridines in Refluxing Water". Synthesis 2005: 2379-2383. doi:10.1055/s-2005-870022.
  3. ^ Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde, Annie Mayence (2003). "Synthesis and Aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Irradiation. An Overview". Molecules 8.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Hantzsch_pyridine_synthesis". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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