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Bulk temperature

In fluid dynamics, the bulk temperature, or the average fluid bulk temperature, is a convenient reference point for evaluating properties related to convective heat transfer, particularly in applications related to flow in pipes and ducts.

Additional recommended knowledge

The concept of the bulk temperature is that adiabatic mixing of the fluid from a given cross section of the duct will result in some equilibrium temperature that accurately reflects the average temperature of the moving fluid, more so than a simple average like the film temperature.


  • Kreith, Frank, and Bohn, Mark S. "Principles of Heat Transfer, Sixth Edition." Brooks/Cole: Pacific Grove, CA, 2001.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bulk_temperature". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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