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Chloropicrin



Chloropicrin
IUPAC name trichloro(nitro)methane
Other names PS
Identifiers
CAS number 76-06-2
SMILES ClC(Cl)(Cl)[N+]([O-])=O
Properties
Molecular formula CCl3NO2
Molar mass 164.375
Appearance colorless liquid
Melting point

-69.2 °C

Boiling point

112 °C (dec)

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Chloropicrin is a slightly oily, colorless or faintly yellow liquid of the formula CCl3NO2. Its freezing point is -69.2 °C and its boiling point is 112 °C, where it partially decomposes to phosgene and nitrosyl chloride. It is denser than water. It is more toxic than chlorine but less than phosgene.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

History

Chloropicrin was used in World War I as a chemical weapon, called 'PS' by British, 'Aquinite' by French, and 'Klop' (green cross) by Germans. After WW II, however, the importance of chloropicrin for military use decreased and, today, has vanished. In the chemical industry, it is widely used for organic synthesis, in fumigants, in fungicides and insecticides, and for the extermination of rats.

Preparation

Chloropicrin is a relatively stable liquid that is prepared by the reaction of picric acid with calcium hypochlorite, by the addition of nitrogen to chlorinated hydrocarbons, or by chlorinating nitromethane. In environment it undergoes photolysis.

Application

Chloropicrin is used for fumigation, to sterilize soil and seed.

Safety

Chloropicrin vapor is highly poisonous if inhaled. As a chemical warfare agent it is a powerful irritant from the group of pulmonary agents. It causes lachrymation, vomiting, bronchitis, and pulmonary edema; the lung injury can be fatal. Very low concentrations cause burning sensation of the eyes, which may serve as a warning.

See also

  • Use of poison gas in World War I.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Chloropicrin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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