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Enthalpy change of solution
Additional recommended knowledge
The heat of solution is one of the three dimensions of solubility analysis. It is most often expressed in kJ/mol at constant temperature. Just as the energy of forming a chemical bond is the difference between electron affinity and ionization energy, the heat of solution of a substance is defined as the difference between the energy absorbed, or endothermic energy, and energy released, or exothermic energy (expressed in "negative" kJ/mol).
Because heating decreases the solubility of a gas, dissolution of gases is exothermic. Consequently, as a gas continues to dissolve in a liquid solvent, temperature will decrease, while the solution continues to release energy. This is an effect of the increase in heat or of the energy required to attract solute and solvent molecules—in other words, this energy outweighs the energy required to separate solvent molecules. When the gas is "completely" dissolved (this is purely theoretical as no substance can infinitely dissolve)—the heat of solution will be at its maximum.
Dissolution can be viewed as occurring in three steps:
The value of the overall enthalpy change is sum of the individual enthalpy changes of each step. For example dissolving ammonium nitrate in water will decrease the temperature of water (solvation does not weigh up against energy spent in breaking down the crystal lattice) while adding potassium hydroxide will increase it.
Solutions with negative heats of solution form stronger bonds and have lower vapor pressure.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Enthalpy_change_of_solution". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.