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Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety, pharmaceutical safety, etc. that addresses physical, chemical and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions, known as Critical Control Points (CCP's) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realized. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes including packaging, distribution, etc. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) was conceived in the 1960s when the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) asked Pillsbury to design and manufacture the first foods for space flights. Since then, HACCP has been recognized internationally as a logical tool for adapting traditional inspection methods to a modern, science-based, food safety system. Based on risk-assessment, HACCP plans allow both industry and government to allocate their resources efficiently in establishing and auditing safe food production practices. In 1994, the organization of International HACCP Alliance was established initially for the US meat and poultry industries to mandatory implementing HACCP and now its membership has been spread over other professional/industrial areas.[1]

Hence, HACCP has been increasingly applied to industries other than food, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This method, which in effect seeks to plan out unsafe practices, differs from traditional "produce and test" quality assurance methods which are less successful and inappropriate for highly perishable foods. In the US, HACCP compliance is regulated by 21 CFR part 120 and 123. Similarly, FAO/WHO published a guidline for all governments to handle the issue in small and less developed food businesses.[2]


The HACCP Seven Principles

HACCP is based around seven established principles.[3]

Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis. Plants determine the food safety hazards and identify the preventive measures the plant can apply to control these hazards. A food safety hazard is any biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.

Principle 2: Identify critical control points. A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.

Principle 3: Establish critical limits for each critical control point. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level.

Principle 4: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements. Monitoring activities are necessary to ensure that the process is under control at each critical control point. In the United States, the FSIS is requiring that each monitoring procedure and its frequency be listed in the HACCP plan.

Principle 5: Establish corrective actions. These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates a deviation from an established critical limit. The final rule requires a plant's HACCP plan to identify the corrective actions to be taken if a critical limit is not met. Corrective actions are intended to ensure that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce.

Principle 6: Establish record keeping procedures. The HACCP regulation requires that all plants maintain certain documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and records documenting the monitoring of critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and the handling of processing deviations.

Principle 7: Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended. Validation ensures that the plants do what they were designed to do; that is, they are successful in ensuring the production of safe product. Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans. FSIS will not approve HACCP plans in advance, but will review them for conformance with the final rule.

Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended. Verification procedures may include such activities as review of HACCP plans, CCP records, critical limits and microbial sampling and analysis. FSIS is requiring that the HACCP plan include verification tasks to be performed by plant personnel. Verification tasks would also be performed by FSIS inspectors. Both FSIS and industry will undertake microbial testing as one of several verification activities. the occurrence of the identified food safety hazard.

HACCP certification

HACCP management system certifications are only offered by several commercial enthusiasts.[4][5] However, ASQ does provide Certified HACCP Auditor (CHA) exam to individuals seeking the professional certification.[6]

HACCP application

  • Fish and fishery products [7]
  • Fresh-cut produces [8]
  • Juice and nectary products [9]
  • Food outlets [10]
  • Meat and poultry products [11]
  • School food and services [12]


  1. ^ International HACCP Alliance. International HACCP Alliance. Retrieved on 12 October, 2007.
  2. ^ FAO/WHO. FAO/WHO guidance to governments on the application of HACCP in small and/or less-developed food businesses. Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.
  3. ^ "Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and Guidelines for its Application", Annex to CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3 (1997) (FAO)
  4. ^ TQ Vision. Welcome to TQ Vision. Retrieved on 9 October, 2007.
  5. ^ International Certifications Limited. International Certifications. Retrieved on 9 October, 2007.
  6. ^ American Society for Quality. HACCP Auditor Certification - CHA. Retrieved on 9 October, 2007.
  7. ^ Food and Drug Administration. Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance, third edition. Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.
  8. ^ Food and Drug Administration. (draft) Guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.
  9. ^ Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance, First Edition. Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.
  10. ^ Food and Drug Administration. Managing Food Safety: A HACCP Principles Guide for Operators of Food Establishments at the Retail Level (Draft). Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.
  11. ^ Food Safety and Inspection Service. FSIS Microbiological Hazard Identification Guide For Meat And Poultry Components Of Products Produced By Very Small Plants. Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.
  12. ^ United States Department of Agriculture. Guidance for school food authorities: developing a school food safety program based on the process approach to HACCP principles. Retrieved on 14 October, 2007.

See also

  • Failure mode and effects analysis
  • Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis
  • Fault tree analysis
  • Design Review Based on Failure Mode

Process management
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Hazard_Analysis_and_Critical_Control_Points". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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