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JP-8, or JP8 (for "Jet Propellant") is a jet fuel, specified in 1990 by the U.S. government. It is kerosene-based. It is a replacement for the JP-4 fuel; the the U.S. Air Force replaced JP-4 with JP-8 completely by the fall of 1996, in order to use less flammable, less hazardous fuel for better safety and combat survivability. U.S. Navy uses a similar formula to JP-8, JP-5. JP-8 is projected to remain in use at least until 2025. It was first introduced at NATO bases in 1978. Its NATO code is F-34. It is specified by MIL-DTL-83133 and British Defence Standard 91-87.
Additional recommended knowledge
JP-5 has even higher flash point than JP-8, but it also has prohibitively higher cost, limiting its use to aircraft carriers.
Outside of powering aircraft, JP-8 is used as a fuel for heaters, stoves, tanks, and other military vehicles, and serves as a coolant in engines and some other aircraft components.
JP-8 contains less benzene (a carcinogen) and less n-hexane (a neurotoxin) than JP-4. However, it also smells stronger than JP-4 and has an oily feel to touch, while JP-4 feels more like a solvent. Workers have complained of smelling and tasting JP-8 for hours after exposure. As JP-8 is less volatile, it remains on the contaminated surfaces for longer time, increasing the risk of exposure.
JP-8+100 is a version of JP-8 with an additive that increases its thermal stability by 100°F (37.78°C). The additive is a combination of a surfactant, metal deactivator, and an antioxidant. It was introduced in 1994. The additive reduces coking and fouling in engine fuel systems. Commercially, this additive is used in Boeing aircraft operated by KLM, and in police helicopters in Tampa, Florida. 
JP-8 fuel is used at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, for heating, electrical generation, and melting ice for water. It is used because it will not gel at low temperatures.
JP-8 is also used by Army Food Service Specialists (cooks) to fuel Modern Burner Units (MBUs), per IAW Army Field Feeding Manual FM 10-23.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "JP-8". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|