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Lemon balm



Lemon Balm

Lemon Balm
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Melissa
Species: M. officinalis
Binomial name
Melissa officinalis
Linnaeus

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region.

It grows to 70-150 cm tall. The leaves have a gentle lemon scent, related to mint. At the end of the summer, little white flowers full of nectar appear. These attract bees, hence the genus name Melissa (Greek for 'honey bee'). Its flavour comes from the terpenes citronellal, citronellol, citral, and geraniol.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Cultivation and use

Cultivation

This herb can be easy to cultivate in United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 4 to 9. In zone 4, it needs winter mulch and a well-drained sandy soil to survive. In zone 7, it can be harvested at least until the end of November. It is moderately shade-tolerant, much more so than most herbs. In dry climates, it grows best in partial shade.

Lemon Balm grows in clumps and spreads vegetatively as well as by seed. In mild temperate zones, the stems of the plant die off at the start of the winter, but shoot up again in spring. It can be easily grown from stem cuttings rooted in water, or from seeds. Under ideal conditions, it will seed itself prolifically and can become a nuisance in gardens.

Food and drink

Lemon balm is often used as a flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas, both hot and iced, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is also frequently paired with fruit dishes or candies.

Medicinal uses

The crushed leaves, when rubbed on the skin, are used as a repellant for mosquitos.

Lemon Balm is also used medicinally as a herbal tea, or in extract form. It is claimed to have antibacterial, antiviral properties, and it is also used as a mild sedative or calming agent. At least one study has found it to be effective at reducing stress, although the study's authors call for further research[1]. Its antibacterial properties have also been demonstrated scientifically, although they are markedly weaker than those from a number of other plants studied[2].

Lemon balm essential oil is very popular in aromatherapy. The essential oil is commonly co-distilled with lemon oil, citronella oil, or other oils.

Warning: Lemon balm should be avoided by those on thyroid medication (such as thyroxine) as it is believed that the herb inhibits the absorption of this medicine.

Gallery


Wikiversity has bloom time data for Melissa officinalis on the Bloom Clock


References

  1. ^ Kennedy, D.O.; W. Little, A.B. Scholey. (2004). "Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm)". Psychosom Med 66 (4): 607-613.
  2. ^ Nascimento, G.G.F.; J. Locatelli, P.C. Freitas, G.L. Silva (2002). "Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on Antibiotic-resistant bacteria". Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 31 (4).
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lemon_balm". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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