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Mentha



Mentha

Mentha longifolia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Mentha
L.
Species

See text

Mentha (mint) is a genus of about 25 species (and many hundreds of varieties[1]) of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae (Mint Family). Species within Mentha have a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Africa, Asia,[2] Australia, and North America. Several mint hybrids commonly occur.

Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial, rarely annual, herbs. They have wide-spreading underground rhizomes and erect, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from simple oblong to lanceolate, often downy, and with a serrated margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple, blue and sometimes pale yellow.[2] The flowers are produced in clusters ('verticils') on an erect spike, white to purple, the corolla two-lipped with four subequal lobes, the upper lobe usually the largest. The fruit is a small dry capsule containing one to four seeds.

While the species that make up the Mentha genus are widely distributed and can be found in many environments, many grow best in wet environments and moist soils. Mints will grow 10–120 cm tall and can spread over an indeterminate sized area. Due to the tendency to spread unchecked, mints are considered invasive.[3]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Species

This covers a selection of what are considered to be pure species of mints. As with all classifications of plants, this list can go out of date at a moment's notice. Listed here are accepted species names and common names (where available). Synonyms, along with cultivars and varieties (where available), are listed under the species.

  • Mentha aquatica – Water mint, or Marsh mint
  • Mentha arvensis – Corn Mint, Wild Mint, Japanese Peppermint, Field Mint
  • Mentha asiatica - Asian Mint
  • Mentha australis - Australian mint
  • Mentha canadensis
  • Mentha cervina - Hart's Pennyroyal
  • Mentha citrata – Bergamot mint
  • Mentha crispata - Wrinkled-leaf mint
  • Mentha cunninghamia
  • Mentha dahurica - Dahurian Thyme
  • Mentha diemenica - Slender mint
  • Mentha gattefossei
  • Mentha grandiflora
  • Mentha haplocalyx
  • Mentha japonica
  • Mentha kopetdaghensis
  • Mentha laxiflora - Forest mint
  • Mentha longifolia - Horse Mint
  • Mentha nemorosa - large apple mint, foxtail mint, hairy mint, woolly mint, Cuban mint
  • Mentha pulegiumPennyroyal
  • Mentha requienii – Corsican mint
  • Mentha sachalinensis - Garden mint
  • Mentha satureioides - Native Pennyroyal
  • Mentha spicata – Spearmint, Curly mint
  • Mentha suaveolensApple mint, Pineapple mint (a variegated cultivar of Apple mint)
  • Mentha vagans - Gray mint

Selected hybrids

The mint family has a large grouping of recognized hybrids. As with all classifications of plants, this list can go out of date at a moment's notice. Synonyms, along with cultivars and varieties where available, are included within the specific species.

  • Mentha × gracilis - Ginger Mint
  • Mentha × piperitaPeppermint
  • Mentha × rotundifolia (M. longifolia × M. suaveolens) - False Apple-mint
  • Mentha × smithiana (M. aquatica × M. arvensis × M. spicata) - Red Raripila Mint
  • Mentha × villosa (M. spicata × M. suaveolens; syn. M. cordifolia) - Apple-mint
  • Mentha × villosonervata (M. longifolia × M. spicata) - Sharp-toothed Mint

Cultivation

 

All mints prefer, and thrive, in cool, moist spots in partial shade.[4] In general, mints tolerate a wide range of conditions, and can also be grown in full sun.

They are fast growing, extending their reach along surfaces through a network of runners. Due to their speedy growth, one plant of each desired mint, along with a little care, will provide more than enough mint for home use. Some mint species are more invasive than others. Even with the less invasive mints, care should be taken when mixing any mint with any other plants, lest the mint take over. To control mints in an open environment, mints should be planted in deep, bottomless containers sunk in the ground, or planted above ground in tubs and barrels.[4]

Some mints can be propagated by seed. Growth from seed can be an unreliable method for raising mint for two reasons: mint seeds are highly variable, one might not end up with what one presupposed was planted[4]; some mint varieties are sterile. It is more effective to take and plant cuttings from the runners of healthy mints.

The most common and popular mints for cultivation are peppermint (Mentha × piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata), and (more recently) pineapple mint (Mentha suaveolens).

Mints tend to make good companion plants, repelling pest insects and attracting beneficial ones. The common mints, like spearmint and peppermint, are considered good to grow among tomato and pepper plants, where they enhance flavor, repel aphids, attract parasitic wasps to eat caterpillars, provide "living mulch" ground cover, etc.[citation needed]

Chamomile is thought to make a good companion plant for mint, as well as increasing essential oil in mints, making them "stronger" in scent and flavor.[citation needed]

Harvesting of mint leaves can be done at anytime. Fresh mint leaves should be used immediately or stored up to a couple of days in plastic bags within a refrigerator. Optionally, mint can be frozen in ice cube trays. Dried mint leaves should be stored in an airtight container placed in a cool, dark, dry area.[5]

Uses

Culinary

The leaf, fresh or dried, is the culinary source of mint. Fresh mint is usually preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem. The leaves have a pleasant warm, fresh, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste. Mint leaves are used in teas, beverages, jellies, syrups, candies, and ice creams. In Middle Eastern cuisine mint is used on lamb dishes. In British cuisine, mint sauce is popular with lamb.

Mint is a necessary ingredient in Touareg tea, a popular tea in northern African and Arab countries.

Alcoholic drinks sometimes feature flavor of mint, namely the Mint Julep and the Mojito. Crème de menthe is a mint-flavored liqueur used in drinks such as the grasshopper.

Mint essential oil and menthol are extensively used as flavorings in breath fresheners, drinks, antiseptic mouth rinses, toothpaste, chewing gum, desserts, and candies; see mint (candy) and mint chocolate. The substances that give the mints their characteristic aromas and flavors are menthol (the main aroma of Spearmint, Peppermint, and Japanese Peppermint) and pulegone (in Pennyroyal and Corsican Mint).

Methyl salicylate, commonly called "oil of wintergreen", is often used as a mint flavoring for foods and candies due to its mint-like flavor.

Mints are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Buff Ermine.

Medicinal and cosmetic

Mint was originally used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains. During the Middle Ages, powdered mint leaves were used to whiten teeth. Mint tea is a strong diuretic. Mint also aids digestion.

Menthol from mint essential oil (40-90%) is an ingredient of many cosmetics and some perfumes. Menthol and mint essential oil are also much used in medicine as a component of many drugs, and are very popular in aromatherapy.

A common use is as an antipruritic, especially in insect bite treatments (often along with camphor).

Menthol is also used in cigarettes as an additive, because it blocks out the bitter taste of tobacco and soothes the throat.[citation needed]

Many people also believe the strong, sharp flavor and scent of Mint can be used as a mild decongestant for illnesses such as the common cold.

In Rome, Pliny recommended that a wreath of mint was a good thing for students to wear since it was thought to "exhilarate their minds". Some modern research suggests that he was right.[citation needed]

Insecticides

Mint leaves are often used by many campers to repel mosquitoes. It is also said that extracts from mint leaves have a particular mosquito-killing capability.

Mint oil is also used as an environmentally-friendly insecticide for its ability to kill some common pests like wasps, hornets, ants and cockroaches.

Diseases

Main article: List of mint diseases

Origin and usage of the word mint

Mint descends from the Latin word mentha, which is rooted in the Greek word minthe, mentioned in Greek mythology as Minthe, a nymph who was transformed into a mint plant. The word itself probably derives from a now extinct pre-Greek language, see Pre-Greek substrate. [6]

Mint leaves, without a qualifier like peppermint or apple mint, generally refers to spearmint leaves.

In Central and South America, mint is known as hierbabuena (literally, "good herb"). In Lusophone countries, especially in Brazil, mint species are popularly known as "Hortelã". In the Hindi and Urdu languages it is called Pudeena.

The taxonomic family Lamiaceae is known as the mint family. It includes many other aromatic herbs, including most of the more common cooking herbs, including basil, rosemary, sage, oregano and catnip.

As an English colloquial term, mint stands for any small sugar confectionery item flavored to taste like the aforementioned plant.[1]

In common usage, several other plants with fragrant leaves may be erroneously called a mint. Vietnamese Mint, commonly used in Southeast Asian cuisine, is not a member of the mint family (taxonomic family Lamiaceae).

Slang

In the south west of the United Kingdom, used adjectivally, the word can be used as a term of approbation or to express delight, as in "tha's mint, tha' is...". It is also used in New Zealand and Canada with the same meaning, but usually as an exclamation, as in 'mint!'.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ a b Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 508. ISBN 0-19-211579-0. 
  2. ^ a b Brickell, Christopher; Zuk, Judith D. (1997). The American Horticultural Society: A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. New York, NY, USA: DK Publishing, Inc., 668. ISBN 0-7894-1943-2. 
  3. ^ Brickell, Christopher; Trevor Cole (2002). The American Horticultural Society: Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers. New York, NY, USA: DK Publishing, Inc., 605. ISBN 0-7894-8993-7. 
  4. ^ a b c Bradley, Fern (1992). Rodale's All-new Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening. Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA: Rodale Press, 390. ISBN 0-87857-999-0. 
  5. ^ Ortiz, Elisabeth (1992). The Encyclopedia of Herbs, Spices & Flavorings. London: Dorling Kindersley, 36-37. ISBN 1-56458-065-2. 
  6. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (1947-). CRC World dictionary of plant names: Common names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Sonyonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press, 1658. 
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mentha". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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