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List of DYS markers

The following DYS (DNA Y-chromosome Segment) markers are commonly used in genealogical DNA testing.

DYS454 is the least varying Y-STR marker, and multi-copy marker DYF399 is the most varying Y-STR marker.

The location on the Y chromosome of numbered DYS markers can be roughly given with cytogenetic localization. For example DYS449 is located at Yp11.2 - meaning the Y chromosome, petit arm, band 1, sub-band 1, sub-sub-band 2 - DYS449[1]. For a nearly complete map of the position of DYS and DYF markers have a look at Ymap from Family Tree DNA.


Mutation rates

Mutation rates are those per generation, as estimated in Chandler (2006)[2]. The quoted estimated errors are typically +/- 15-20%. Alternative estimates from observed pedigrees are also available for some markers [3].

It appears that some trinucleotide markers may have much higher mutation rates at some repeat lengths than at others. For example, variation of the trinucleotide DYS 388 is generally very slow in most haplogroups, when it takes the values 11-13. But there appears to be much greater variation and more rapid mutation in Haplogroup J, where it typically has values 14-18. Similarly the trinucleotide DYS 392 is reported to be "fast" in haplogroups N and Q, where it takes values 14-16 which are rare in other groups. [4].

DYS markers

DYS# notes DNA sequence repeat motif alleles mutation rate links
DYS19 see DYS394
DYS385 DYS385 is a multi-copy marker, and includes DYS385a and DYS385b. The order of DYS385a and DYS385b may be reversed, their sequence is referred to as the Kittler order. GAAA 7 - 28 0.00226 NIST fact sheet
DYS388 ATT 10-16 0.00022 [5]
DYS389 DYS389 is a multi-copy marker, and includes DYS389i and DYS389ii. DYS389ii refers to the total length of DYS389. Therefore, when there is a one step mutation at DYS389i, it will also appear in DYS389ii. (TCTG) (TCTA) (TCTG) (TCTA) i:9-17


0.00186, 0.00242 NIST fact sheet
DYS390 (TCTA) (TCTG) 17-28 0.00311 NIST fact sheet
DYS391 TCTA 6-14 0.00265 NIST fact sheet
DYS392 TAT 6-17 0.00052 [5] NIST fact sheet
DYS393 DYS393 is also known as DYS395. AGAT 9-17 0.00076 NIST fact sheet
DYS394 DYS394 is also known as DYS19. TAGA 10-19 0.00151 NIST fact sheet
DYS413 Found in the Palindromic region of the Y DNA
DYS425 DYS425 is associated with the defining SNP for haplogroup I1b2a1, as the SNP M284 can render a null value at this marker. It is also commonly a place of occurrence for a recLOH which can render a null value. TGT 10-15 [5]
DYS426 GTT 10-12 0.00009 [5] NIST fact sheet
DYS434 TAAT (CTAT) 9-12 NIST fact sheet
DYS435 TGGA 9-13
DYS436 GTT 9-15 [5]
DYS437 TCTA 13-17 0.00099 NIST fact sheet
DYS438 TTTTC 6-14 0.00055 NIST fact sheet
DYS439 DYS439 is also known as Y-GATA-A4. DYS439 is associated with the defining SNP for haplogroup R1b1c9a, as the SNP can render a null value at this marker. AGAT 9-14 0.00477 NIST fact sheet
DYS441 CCTT 12-18 A novel multiplex PCR system
DYS442 TATC 10-14 0.00324 A novel multiplex PCR system
DYS443 TTCC 12-17
DYS444 TAGA 11-15 A novel multiplex PCR system
DYS445 TTTA 10-13 A novel multiplex PCR system
DYS446 TCTCT 10-18 Sorenson Marker Details
DYS447 TAAWA 22-29 0.00264 NIST fact sheet
DYS448 AGAGAT 20-26 0.00135 NIST fact sheet
DYS449 TTTC 26-36 0.00838 Sorenson Marker Details

GDB fact sheet

DYS450 TTTTA 8-11
DYS452 YATAC 27-33
DYS453 AAAT 9-13
DYS454 is the least varying Y-STR marker commonly used in genealogical DNA testing. Of the entries for DYS454 at Ybase, 96% have 11 repeats, 3% have 10 repeats, and 2% have 12 repeats (source). AAAT 10-12 0.00016
DYS455 AAAT 8-12 0.00016 Sorenson Marker Details
DYS456 AGAT 13-18 0.00735 Sorenson Marker Details
DYS458 GAAA 13-20 0.00814 Sorenson Marker Details
DYS459 This is a multi-copy marker, and includes DYS459a and DYS459b. TAAA 7-10 0.00132
DYS460 DYS460 was originally known as Y-GATA-A7.1. ATAG 7-12 0.00402 NIST fact sheet
DYS461 DYS461 was originally known as Y-GATA-A7.2. (TAGA) CAGA 8-14 NIST fact sheet
DYS462 TATG 8-14
DYS463 AARGG 18-27 GDB fact sheet
DYS464 is a multi-copy marker, and includes DYS464a, DYS464b, DYS464c, and DYS464d. Rarely it can also include DYS464e, DYS464f, and DYS464g. DYS464 is the most varying Y-STR marker (source). This marker can also be typed with separate g-types and c-types to increase resolution. The type variance is based on a SNP that can be found in most R1b haplogroup males. It is part of the Palindromic region of Y DNA CCTT 9-20 0.00566 Forensic value of the multicopy Y-STR marker DYS464

DYS464X testing
DYS464 discrepancies

DYS481 CTT 20-30 [5]
DYS485 TTA 10-18 [5]
DYS487 ATT 12-14 [5]
DYS490 TTA 12-16 [5]
DYS494 TAT 10 [5]
DYS495 AAT 12-18 [5]
DYS497 TAT 13-16 [5]
DYS505 TCCT 9-15
DYS508 TATC 8-15
DYS520 ATAS 18-26
DYS522 GATA 8-17
DYS525 TAGA 9-12
DYS531 AAAT 11-13
DYS532 CTTT 9-17
DYS533 ATCT 9-14
DYS534 CTTT 10-20
DYS540 TTAT 10-13
DYS549 AGAT 10-14
DYS556 AATA 8-12
DYS565 TAAA 9-14
DYS570 TTTC 12-23 0.00790 GDB fact sheet
DYS572 AAAT 8-12
DYS573 TTTA 8-11
DYS575 AAAT 8-12
DYS576 AAAG 13-21 0.01022
DYS578 AAAT 7-10
DYS594 TAAAA 8-11
DYS607 AAGG 8-20 0.00411
DYS635 Also known as Y-GATA-C4 TSTA compound 17-27
DYS638 TTTA 10-12
DYS641 TAAA 7-11
DYS643 CTTTT 7-15
DYS724 Palindromic; also known as CDY 0.03531 GDB Fact Sheet
DYS725 Palindromic
DYS726 YSTR marker in the pericentromeric region. 11-16
DYF371 DYF371 is a multicopy, palindromic region marker. Includes the DYS425 marker & can be informative in cases of null values at that marker.
DYF385S1 Duplicated YSTR marker in close proximity to DYS459 9-12
DYF397 DYF397 is a palindromic region marker.
An asymmetric three allele STR locus that can be used to observe deletions and recombinational rearrangements in the palindromic region of the Y chromosome. 17-29 (many incomplete alleles) nomenclature
DYF401 DYF401 is a palindromic region marker.
DYF408 DYF408 is a palindromic region marker.
DYF411 DYF411 is a palindromic region marker.
YCAII YCAII is a multi-copy marker which includes YCAIIa & YCAIIb 0.00123
Y-GATA-H4 TAGA 8-13 (25-30) 0.00208 NIST fact sheet
Y-GATA-C4 see DYS635
Y-GATA-A10 TAGA 13-18 NIST fact sheet

Notes & References

  1. ^ DYS449 in the GDB Human Genome Database
  2. ^ Chandler (2006) (but see also this mailing list discussion )
  3. ^ YHRD mutation rates
  4. ^ GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives — DYS 388 Mutation Rate?
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Trinucleotide - see #Mutation rates
  • Kayser et al (2004), A Comprehensive Survey of Human Y-Chromosomal Microsatellites Am. J. Hum. Genet., 74 1183-1197. NB online only data file

See also

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_DYS_markers". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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