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Penning ionization

Penning ionization is a form of chemi-ionization, an ionization process involving reactions between neutral atoms and/or molecules.[1][2][3] The term Penning ionization refers to the interaction between a gas-phase excited-state atom or molecule G* and a target molecule M resulting in the formation of a radical molecular cation M+., an electron e- and a neutral gas molecule G.


G^* + M \to M^{+\bullet} + e^- + G

Associative Penning ionization can occur:

G^* + M \to MG^{+\bullet} + e^-

Surface Penning ionization refers to the interaction of the excited-state gas with a surface S, resulting in the release of an electron.

G^* + S \to G + S + e^-

Penning ionization occurs when the target molecule has an ionization potential lower than the internal energy of the excited-state atom or molecule. The process was first reported by F.M. Penning in 1927.

See also


  1. ^ Penning, F. M. Die Naturwissenschaften, 1927, 15, 818. Über Ionisation durch metastabile Atome.
  2. ^ Arango CA, Shapiro M, Brumer P (2006). "Cold atomic collisions: coherent control of penning and associative ionization". Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (19): 193202. PMID 17155624.
  3. ^ Hiraoka K, Furuya H, Kambara S, Suzuki S, Hashimoto Y, Takamizawa A (2006). "Atmospheric-pressure Penning ionization of aliphatic hydrocarbons". Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20 (21): 3213-22. doi:10.1002/rcm.2706. PMID 17016831.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Penning_ionization". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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