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The protein C pathway’s key enzyme, activated protein C, provides physiologic antithrombotic activity and exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Its actions are related to development of thrombosis and ischemic stroke. The protein C pathway of the coagulation of the blood involves the influences of lipids and lipoproteins and the study of the strong epidemiologic association between hyperlipidemia and hypercoagulability.
Additional recommended knowledge
Role in disease
Protein C deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that predisposes to venous thrombosis and habitual abortion. If homozygous, this presents with a form of disseminated intravascular coagulation in newborns termed purpura fulminans; it is treated by replacing the defective protein C.
Activated protein C resistance is the inability of protein C to cleave factors V and/or VIII. This may be hereditary or acquired. The best known and most common hereditary form is Factor V Leiden. Acquired forms occur in the presence of elevated Factor VIII concentrations.
Warfarin necrosis is acquired protein C deficiency due to treatment with the vitamin K inhibitor anticoagulant warfarin. In initial stages of action, inhibition of protein C may be stronger than inhibition of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX and X), leading to paradoxical activation of coagulation and necrosis of skin areas.
HDL and the effects of activated protein C (APC) on cells is very important.
Drotrecogin alpha(activated) is recombinant activated protein C from Ely Lilly Co, USA. It is used in the treatment of severe sepsis, septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
The PROC gene is located on the second chromosome (2q13-q14).
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Protein_C". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|