My watch list  

Protein C


Protein C is a major physiological anticoagulant. It is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease enzyme (EC that is activated by thrombin into activated protein C (APC). The activated form (with protein S and phospholipid as a cofactor) degrades Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. It should not be confused with C peptide or c-reactive protein or protein kinase C.

The protein C pathway’s key enzyme, activated protein C, provides physiologic antithrombotic activity and exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Its actions are related to development of thrombosis and ischemic stroke. The protein C pathway of the coagulation of the blood involves the influences of lipids and lipoproteins and the study of the strong epidemiologic association between hyperlipidemia and hypercoagulability.[1]

See: detailed diagram of Blood Coagulation (Thrombin) and Protein C Pathways


Role in disease


Protein C deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that predisposes to venous thrombosis and habitual abortion. If homozygous, this presents with a form of disseminated intravascular coagulation in newborns termed purpura fulminans; it is treated by replacing the defective protein C.

Activated protein C resistance is the inability of protein C to cleave factors V and/or VIII. This may be hereditary or acquired. The best known and most common hereditary form is Factor V Leiden. Acquired forms occur in the presence of elevated Factor VIII concentrations.

Warfarin necrosis is acquired protein C deficiency due to treatment with the vitamin K inhibitor anticoagulant warfarin. In initial stages of action, inhibition of protein C may be stronger than inhibition of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX and X), leading to paradoxical activation of coagulation and necrosis of skin areas.

HDL and the effects of activated protein C (APC) on cells is very important.[3]


Drotrecogin alpha(activated) is recombinant activated protein C from Ely Lilly Co, USA. It is used in the treatment of severe sepsis, septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation.


The PROC gene is located on the second chromosome (2q13-q14).

Protein C (inactivator of coagulation factors Va and VIIIa)
PDB rendering based on 1aut.
Available structures: 1aut, 1lqv
Symbol(s) PROC; PROC1
External IDs OMIM: 176860 MGI: 97771 Homologene: 37288
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 5624 19123
Ensembl ENSG00000115718 ENSMUSG00000024386
Uniprot P04070 P33587
Refseq NM_000312 (mRNA)
NP_000303 (protein)
XM_984063 (mRNA)
XP_989157 (protein)
Location Chr 2: 127.89 - 127.9 Mb Chr 18: 32.27 - 32.28 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

See also

  • Activated protein C resistance
  • Protein C inhibitor
  • Hemostasis


  1. ^ Thrombosis, Blood Coagulation and the Antithrombotic Protein C Pathway - John H. Griffin, TSRI
  2. ^ Activated protein C resistance
  3. ^ Blood review by Mosnier, Zlokovic and Griffin 2006 ePub

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Protein_C". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE