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    The pycnometer (from Greek: πυκνός (puknos) meaning "dense"), also called pyknometer or specific gravity bottle, is traditionally a glass flask with a close-fitting ground glass stopper with a capillary tube (fine hole) through it, so that a given volume can be accurately obtained. This enables the density of a fluid to be measured accurately, by reference to an appropriate working fluid such as water or mercury, using an analytical balance.

If the flask is weighed empty, full of water, and full of a liquid whose specific gravity is desired, the specific gravity of the liquid can easily be calculated. The particle density of a powder, to which the usual method of weighing cannot be applied, can also be determined with a pycnometer. The powder is added to the pycnometer, which is then weighed, giving the weight of the powder sample. The pycnometer is then filled with a liquid of known density, in which the powder is completely insoluble. The weight of the displaced liquid can then be determined, and thence the specific gravity of the powder.

The pycnometer is used in ISO standard: ISO 1183-1:2004, and ASTM standard: ASTM D854.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Pycnometer". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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