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Additional recommended knowledge
The reaction with pyruvate kinase:
pyruvate kinase PEP ----------> pyruvate / \ ADP ATP
This process also requires a manganese ion. The enzyme is a hydrolase under the international classification of enzymes.
This reaction has a large negative free energy change, one of three in glycolysis. All three such steps regulate the overall activity of the pathway, and are generally irreversible under physiological conditions.
Pyruvate kinase activity is regulated by:
Pyruvate kinase is also regulated indirectly by insulin and glucagon, which control a protein kinase. This protein kinase phosphorylates pyruvate kinase to inactivate it and dephosphorylates the enzyme to activate it. Glucagon signals fasting (no glucose available), and insulin signals the opposite. These two signaling molecules--in conjunction with the protein kinase--prevent pyruvate kinase from being active at the same time as the enzymes which catalyze the reverse reaction (pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), preventing a futile cycle.
In fact, to say that the forward reaction and reverse reaction are not both active simultaneously may not be entirely accurate. Futile cycles, also known as substrate cycles, are known to fine-tune flux through metabolic pathways.
Genetic defects of this enzyme cause the disease known as pyruvate kinase deficiency. In this condition, a lack of pyruvate kinase slows down the process of glycolysis. This effect is especially devastating in cells that lack mitochondria, because these cells must use anaerobic glycolysis as their sole source of energy because the TCA cycle is not available.
One example is red blood cells, which in a state of pyruvate kinase deficiency rapidly become deficient in ATP and can undergo hemolysis. Therefore, pyruvate kinase deficiency can cause hemolytic anemia.
Role in gluconeogenesis
Pyruvate kinase also serves as a regulatory enzyme for gluconeogenesis, a biochemical pathway in which the liver generates glucose from pyruvate and other substrates. When pyruvate kinase is inhibited by phosphorylation (which occurs in the fasting state, via glucagon), phosphoenolpyruvate is prevented from conversion to pyruvate. Instead, it is converted to glucose in a series of gluconeogenesis reactions that are mostly (but not exactly) the reverse sequence of glycolysis.
The glucose thus produced is expelled from the liver, providing energy for vital tissues in the fasting state.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Pyruvate_kinase". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|