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Scutellaria lateriflora, also known as Blue skullcap, Hoodwort, Virginian skullcap, is a hardy perennial herb native to North America. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which also includes many other herbs. The form is upright and is usually 0.2m to 0.45m in height  . It is a wetland loving species and grows along fens and shorelines. The blue flowers appear in July to September and are 10-20mm long. The flowers are in pairs and are all on the same side of the stem. The flowers do not appear at the top of the stem. The name of the species, 'lateriflora' means having 'lateral flowers' or 'flowers to the side.'
Additional recommended knowledge
Scutellaria, as a genus, has numerous medicinal uses and various species of skullcap are used in the same way. It should be noted though that the traditional uses of Virginian Skullcap should not be confused with those of other Skullcaps as there are 200 different species of Skullcap and they are not all used in the same way. Blue skullcap is often used in the same way as for Common skullcap (S. galericulata), Western skullcap (S. cordifolia), or Southern skullcap all of which are very genetically similar. Blue Skullcap and Common Skullcap are mainly known for their traditional use as an incense and herbal teas.
Scutellarin is transformed by hydrolysis into scutellarein.
The principle phenolics in the leaves, stems, and roots are baicalein and wogonin. . Another study identifies 5,6,7-trihydroxy-2'- methoxyflavone and its 7-0-glucuronide.. A number of the flavones found in S. lateriflora have been reported to selectively bind with high affinity to central benzodiazepine receptor sites, leading to the view that the flavones exert anxiolytic and other benzodiazepine effects in rats.
Virginian skullcap contains the flavonoid glycosides baicalin, dihydrobaicalin and chrysin glucuronide. Baicalin is known to be anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Chrysin is found naturally in various plants including wild carrot, the Pelargonium species, which are germanium-like plants; the Passiflora or passion flower species, which include tropical passion fruit; and the Pinaceae species, including pine trees. Chrysin is sold as a nutritional supplement for male body builders because of its possible action in inhibiting the conversions of androgens to estrogens.
The flavonoids are found throughout the plant but are more concentrated in the leaves, and the concentrations are found to decrease slightly as the plant matures. The dried leaf is reported to contain ~50 mg/g of flavonoids. The flavonoids are readily extracted using hot water.
Several neo-clerodane diterpenoids with insect anti-feedant activity have been reported from S. laterifolia.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Scutellaria_lateriflora". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|