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Shiitake



Shiitake

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Homobasidiomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Tricholomataceae or Marasmiaceae or Omphalotaceae
Genus: Lentinula
Species: L. edodes
Binomial name
Lentinula edodes
(Berk.) Pegler
Lentinula edodes
mycological characteristics:
 
gills on hymenium
 

cap is convex

 

hymenium is free

 

stipe is bare

 
 

spore print is white or buff

 

ecology is saprophytic

 

edibility: choice

The shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia. It is generally known in the English-speaking world by its Japanese name, shiitake listen  (kanji: 椎茸; literally "shii mushroom", from the Japanese name of the tree that provides the dead logs on which it is typically cultivated).

In Chinese, it is called xiānggū (香菇, literally "fragrant mushroom"). Two Chinese variant names for high grades of shiitake are dōnggū (Chinese: 冬菇, "winter mushroom") and huāgū (花菇, "flower mushroom", which has a flower-like cracking pattern on the mushroom's upper surface); both are produced at colder temperatures. Other names by which the mushroom is known in English include Chinese black mushroom and black forest mushroom. In Korean it is called pyogo (hangul: 표고; hanja: 瓢菰), in Thai they are called hed hom (เห็ดหอม, "fragrant mushroom"), and in Vietnamese they are called nấm hương ("fragrant mushroom").

The species was formerly known as Lentinus edodes and Agaricus edodes. The latter name was first applied by the English botanist Miles Joseph Berkeley in 1878.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Cultivation history

Shiitake are native to China but have been grown in both Japan and China since prehistoric times[1]. They have been cultivated for over 1000 years; the first written record of shiitake cultivation can be traced to Wu Sang Kwuang, born during the Song Dynasty (960-1127 A.D.). However, some documents record the uncultivated mushroom being eaten as early as 199 A.D.

During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), physician Wu Juei wrote that the mushroom could be used not only as a food but was taken as a remedy for upper respiratory diseases, poor blood circulation, liver trouble, exhaustion and weakness, and to boost qi, or life energy. It was also believed to prevent premature aging.

Before 1982 the Japanese variety of these mushooms could only be grown in traditional locations using ancient methods. In the late '70s, Gary F. Leatham published a doctoral thesis based on his research on the budding and growth of the Japan Islands variety; the work helped make commercial cultivation possible world-wide, and Dr. Leatham is now known in the industry as the "Father of Shiitake farming in the USA."

Culinary use

  Fresh and dried shiitake have many uses in the cuisines of East Asia. They are served in miso soup, used as the basis for a kind of vegetarian dashi, and also as an ingredient in many steamed and simmered dishes. In Thailand, they can be fried as well as steamed.

Shiitake are often dried and sold as preserved food in packages. These must be rehydrated by soaking in water before using. Many people prefer dried shiitake to fresh, considering that the sun-drying process draws out the superior umami flavour from the dried mushrooms by breaking down proteins into amino acids and transforms ergosterol to vitamin D. The stems of shiitake are rarely used in Japanese and other cuisines, primarily because the stems are harder and take longer to cook than the soft fleshy caps. The highest grade of shiitake are called donko in Japanese.

Today, Shiitake mushrooms have become popular in many other countries as well. Russia produces and also consumes large amounts of them, mostly sold pickled; and the shiitake is slowly making its way into western cuisine as well. There is a global industry in shiitake production, with local farms in most western countries in addition to large scale importation from China, Japan, and elsewhere.

Because they can now be grown world wide, their availability is widespread and their price has decreased.

Medicinal use

Shiitake mushrooms have been researched for their medicinal benefits, most notably their anti-tumor properties in laboratory mice. These studies have also identified the polysaccharide lentinan, a (1-3) β-D-glucan, as the active compound responsible for the anti-tumor effects.[2]

Extracts from shiitake mushrooms have also been researched for many other immunological benefits, ranging from anti-viral properties to possible treatments for severe allergies, as well as arthritis.[3]

Lenthionine, a key flavour compound of shiitake, also inhibits platelet aggregation, so it is a promising treatment for thrombosis.[citation needed]

Shiitake are also one of a few known natural sources of vegan and kosher vitamin D (vitamin D2).

A patented chemical derived from shiitake is reputed to reverse cellular aging and is sold as a moisturizer by the company Aveno.[1]

See also

  • Chinese cuisine
  • Japanese cuisine
  • Korean cuisine
  • Thai cuisine
  • Edible mushroom

References

  1. ^ Kazuko, Emi (2006). The Complete Book of Japanese Cooking. London: Hermes House, 77. ISBN 978-0-681-28004-5. 
  2. ^ Kim H, Kacew S, Lee B (1999). "In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor)". Carcinogenesis 20 (8): 1637-40. PMID 10426820.
  3. ^ Takehara M, Kuida K, Mori K (1979). "Antiviral activity of virus-like particles from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake)". Archives of Virology 59 (3): 269-74. PMID 222241.

Further reading

  • Tsuji, Shizuo (1980). Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art. New York: Kodansha International/USA.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Shiitake". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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