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It is an 11-amino acid polypeptide with the sequence: Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met
Additional recommended knowledge
In the central nervous system, substance P has been associated in the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress, reinforcement, neurogenesis, respiratory rhythm, neurotoxicity, nausea / emesis and pain.
The vomiting center in the brainstem contains high concentrations of substance P and its receptor, in addition to other neurotransmitters such as choline, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and opioids. Their activation stimulates the vomiting reflex. Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting. 
Substance P is involved in the transmission of pain impulses from peripheral receptors to the central nervous system. It has been theorized that it plays a part in fibromyalgia. Capsaicin has been shown to reduce the levels of Substance P probably by reducing the number of C-fibre nerves or causing these nerves to be more tolerant. Thus Capsaicin is clinically used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain associated with arthritis and many types of neuralgia.
Stimulating cellular growth
Substance P has been shown to stimulate cellular growth in cell culture , and it was shown that Substance P could promote wound healing of non-healing ulcers in humans.  It has also been shown to reverse diabetes in mice. 
Substance P in gastrointestinal infection
Entamoeba histolytica is a single-celled parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans, producing symptoms of diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain. This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin, as well as substance P and neurotensin.
Animals without Substance P
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Substance_P". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|