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## Thermal quantum field theoryIn theoretical physics, ## Additional recommended knowledgeIn the Matsubara (imaginary-time) formalism, the basic idea (due to Felix Bloch) is that the expectation values of operators in a thermal ensemble may be written as expectation values in ordinary quantum field theory where the configuration is evolved by an imaginary time An alternative approach which is of interest to mathematical physics is to work with KMS states. |

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Thermal_quantum_field_theory". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. |