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Timeline of carbon nanotubes

Timeline of carbon nanotubes:

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Carbon nanotubes
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  • Radushkevich and Lukyanovich publish a paper in the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry showing hollow graphitic carbon fibers that are 50 nanometers in diameter.[1]


  • Oberlin, Endo and Koyama report CVD growth of nanometer-scale carbon fibers.[2]


  • Arthur C. Clarke's science fiction novel The Fountains of Paradise popularizes the idea of a space elevator using "a continuous pseudo-one dimensional diamond crystal".[3]



  • Howard G. Tennent of Hyperion Catalysis issued a U.S. patent for graphitic, hollow core "fibrils".[5]


  • Nanotubes discovered in the soot of arc discharge at NEC, by Japanese researcher Sumio Iijima.[6]
  • August — Nanotubes discovered in CVD by Al Harrington and Tom Maganas of Maganas Industries, leading to development of a method to synthesize monomolecular thin film nanotube coatings.[7]


  • Groups led by Donald S. Bethune at IBM[8] and Sumio Iijima at NEC[9] independently discover single-wall carbon nanotubes and methods to produce them using transition-metal catalysts.


  • First demonstration proving that bending changes resistance[10]


  • April — IBM announces a technique for automatically developing pure semiconductor surfaces from nanotubes.[11]


  • January — Multi-walled nanotubes demonstrated to be fastest known oscillators (> 50 GHz).[12]
  • REBO method of quickly and accurately modeling classical nanotube behavior is described.[13]


  • April — Demonstration proves that bending changes resistance.[14]
  • June — High purity (20% impure) nanotubes with metallic properties were reported to be extracted with electrophoretic techniques.[15]
  • September — NEC announced stable fabrication technology of carbon nanotube transistors[16]


  • June — Scientists from China's Tsinghua University and Louisiana State University demonstrated the use of nanotubes in incandescent lamps, replacing a tungsten filament in a lightbulb with a carbon nanotube one.[17]
  • March — Nature published a photo of an individual 4 cm long single-wall nanotube (SWNT).[18]
  • August — Varying the applied voltage emits light at different points along a tube.[19]


  • May — A prototype high-definition 10-centimetre flat screen made using nanotubes was exhibited.[20]
  • August — University of California finds Y-shaped nanotubes to be ready-made transistors.[21]
  • August — General Electric announced the development of an ideal carbon nanotube diode that operates at the "theoretical limit" (the best possible performance). A photovoltaic effect was also observed in the nanotube diode device that could lead to breakthroughs in solar cells, making them more efficient and thus more economically viable.[22]
  • August — Nanotube sheet synthesised with dimensions 5 × 100 cm.[23]
  • September — Applied Nanotech (Texas), in conjunction with six Japanese electronics firms, have created a prototype of a 25-inch TV using carbon nanotubes. The prototype TV does not suffer from "ghosting," as some types of digital TVs do.[24]
  • September — Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory demonstrated that ignition by a conventional flashbulb takes place when a layer of 29% iron enriched SWNT is placed on top of a layer of explosive material such as PETN. With ordinary explosives optical ignition is only possible with high powered lasers.[25]
  • September — Researchers demonstrated a new way to coat MWNT's with magnetite which after orientation in a magnetic field were able to attract each other over a distance of at least 10 micrometres.[26]The nanotubes were functionalized with negatively charged carboxylic acid groups in an AIBN type free radical addition. Magnetite nanoparticles prepared by the Massart method were given a positive charge by washing with nitric acid which made them stick to the nanotubes by electrostatic forces.
  • September — American and Korean scientists, working at Columbia University and Pohang University of Science and Technology and lead by Professor's Philip Kim of Columbia and Kim Kwang-Soo of Pohang, succeeded in pulling out a nested tube from a multiwalled nanotube (MWNT).[27]
  • November — Liquid flows up to five orders of magnitude faster than predicted through array.[28]
  • December — Indian Institutes of Technology Kanpur(India) announces presence of CNT in Soft-Kohl.[29]



  • January — Thin films of nanotubes made by evaporation.[30]
  • January — Another new method for growing forests of nanotubes is announced.[31]
  • January — Elasticity increased from 20% to 280% by raising temperatures, causing diameter and conductivity to change greatly.[32]
  • March — IBM announces that they have built an electronic circuit around a CNT.[33]
  • March — Nanotubes used as a scaffold for damaged nerve regeneration.[34]
  • May — Method of placing nanotube accurately is developed by IBM.[35]
  • June — Gadget invented by Rice University that can sort nanotubes by size and electrical properties[36]
  • July — Nanotubes were alloyed into the carbon fiber bike that won the 2006 Tour de France.[37]
  • August — oscillating nanotubes found to detect and identify individual molecules.[38]


  1. ^ Monthioux, Marc (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?" (PDF). CARBON 44: 1621.
  2. ^ Oberlin, A.; M. Endo, and T. Koyama (1976). "Filamentous growth of carbon through benzene decomposition". J. Cryst. Growth 32: 335.
  3. ^ 1D Diamond Crystal - A continuous pseudo-one dimensional diamond crystal - maybe a nanotube?. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
    Audacious & Outrageous: Space Elevators. NASA (7 September 2000). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  4. ^ Kroto, H. W.; et al. (1985). "C60: Buckminsterfullerene". Nature 318: 162–163.
  5. ^ Tennent, Howard G (May 5, 1987). "Carbon fibrils, method for producing same and compositions containing same". U.S. Patent 4,663,230 .
  6. ^ Iijima, Sumio (7 November 1991). "Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon". Nature 354: 56–58. doi:10.1038/354056a0.
  7. ^ Maganas, Thomas C; Alan L. Harrington (September 1, 1992). "Intermittent film deposition method and system". U.S. Patent 5,143,745 .
  8. ^ Bethune, D. S.; et al. (17 June 1993). "Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls". Nature 363: 605–607. doi:10.1038/363605a0.
  9. ^ Iijima, Sumio; Toshinari Ichihashi (17 June 1993). "Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter". Nature 363: 603–605. doi:10.1038/363603a0.
  10. ^ Tombler et al. Reversible electromechanical characteristics of carbon nanotubes under local-probe manipulation, Nature, Volume 405, Issue 6788, pp. 769-772 (2000)
  11. ^ The Discovery of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes at IBM. IBM Almaden Research Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  12. ^ Nanotubes in the Fast Lane (18 January 2002). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  13. ^ Nanotube-Based New Materials: Filling. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  14. ^ Nanotubes Under Stress (16 April 2003). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  15. ^ Dumé, Belle. "Nanotubes go their separate ways", Physicsweb, 27 June 2003. Retrieved on 2006-10-21. 
  16. ^ NEC (September 19, 2003). "Tests Verify Carbon Nanotube Enable Ultra High Performance Transistor". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  17. ^ Wei JQ et al. (2004), Carbon nanotube filaments in household light bulbs, Applied Physics Letters 84
  18. ^ Zheng, L. X.; et al. (2004). "Ultralong single-wall carbon nanotubes". Nature Materials 3: 673–676.
  19. ^ Spotlight on Nanotubes (19 August 2004). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  20. ^ "Carbon nanotubes used in computer and TV screens", New Scientist, 21 May 2005, pp. 28. 
  21. ^ Knight, Will. "Y-shaped nanotubes are ready-made transistors", New Scientist Tech, 15 August 2005. Retrieved on 2006-10-21. 
  22. ^ GE. "GE's Research Program Achieves Major Feat in Nanotechnology". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  23. ^ "Carbon-nanotube fabric measures up",, 18 August 2005. 
  24. ^ Applied Nanotech To Produce 25-Inch Colour Carbon Nanotube TV (30 September 2003). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  25. ^ Manaa, M. Riad; et al. (2005). "Flash Ignition and Initiation of Explosives-Nanotubes Mixture". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(40): 13786–13787. doi:10.1021/ja0547127.
  26. ^
  27. ^ Hong, Byung Hee; et al. (October 4, 2005). "Extracting subnanometer single shells from ultralong multiwalled carbon nanotubes" (PDF). PNAS 102 (40): 14155–14158.
  28. ^ "Nanotube flow faster than predicted",, 11 November 2005. 
  29. ^ Singh, Rao Jaswant. "Cutting Edge - The nano science of kajal", December 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-10-21. 
  30. ^ Kalaugher, Liz. "Drying droplets create nanotube films", 25 January 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-21. 
  31. ^ Kalaugher, Liz. "Carbon nanotubes grow from base", 10 January 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-21. 
  32. ^ "Carbon nanotubes go superplastic", 19 January 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-21. 
    Smalley, Richard E.; et al. (January 17, 2006). "Method for forming composites of sub-arrays of single-wall carbon nanotubes" (PDF). U.S. Patent 6,986,876 .
  33. ^ "IBM takes step towards chip nanotechnology", CNN Money, March 24, 2006. 
    Hutson, Stu. "Nanotube circuit could boost chip speeds", 23 March 2006. 
    "Nano circuit offers big promise", 24 March 2006. 
  34. ^ "Optic nerve regrown with a nanofibre scaffold", 13 March 2006. 
  35. ^ "Carbon nanotubes pinned down at last", 30 May 2006. 
  36. ^ "Gadget sorts nanotubes by size", 27 June 2006. 
  37. ^ "Carbon nanotubes enter Tour de France", July 7, 2006. 
  38. ^ "Carbon-nanotube 'strings' may ID single molecules", New Scientist, 28 August 2006. 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Timeline_of_carbon_nanotubes". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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