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Vermicompost (also called worm compost, vermicast, worm castings, worm humus or worm manure) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich, natural fertilizer and soil conditioner. The process of producing vermicompost is called vermicomposting .
The earthworm species (or composting worms) most often used are Red Wigglers (Eisenia foetida) or Red Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus). These species are commonly found in organic rich soils throughout Europe and north America and especially prefer the special conditions in rotting vegetation, compost and manure piles. Composting worms are available from nursery mail-order suppliers or angling (fishing) shops where they are sold as bait. Small-scale vermicomposting is well-suited to turn kitchen waste into high-quality soil, where space is limited.
Together with bacteria, earthworms are the major catalyst for decomposition in a healthy vermicomposting system, although other soil species also play a contributing role: these include insects, other worms and molds.
Additional recommended knowledge
Vermicomposting bins (also known as worm bins) vary drastically depending on the desired size of the system. Garden-scale containers can be made out of bricks arranged in the shape of a box. Bins for an apartment or similar dwelling can be anything from reused plastic buckets to purpose-built commercial containers.
Small-scale systems may use a wide variety of bins. Often, small-scale composters build their own bins. Companies also sell such bins. Commonly, bins are made of old plastic containers, wood, Styrofoam containers, or metal containers.
Some materials are less desirable than others in bin construction. Styrofoam is believed to release toxins into the earthworms' environment. Metal containers often conduct heat too readily, are prone to rusting, and may release heavy metals into compost.
Bins should have holes in the sides to allow air to flow, and a spout that can be opened or closed or holes in the bottom to drain into a collection tray. Plastic bins require more drainage than wooden ones because they are non-absorbent. The design of a small bin usually depends on where an individual wishes to store the bin and how they wish to feed the worms. Most small bins can be grouped into three categories:
There are two main methods of large-scale vermiculture. Some systems use a windrow, which consists of bedding materials for the earthworms to live in (see bedding below) and acts as a large bin; organic material is added to it. Although the windrow has no physical barriers to prevent worms from escaping, in theory they should not due to an abundance of organic matter for them to feed on. Often windrows are used on a concrete surface to prevent predators from killing the worm population. When large scale windrows are fed on one side consistently, a wave motion is generated over time.
The second type of large-scale vermicomposting system is the raised bed or flow-through system. Here the worms are fed an inch of "worm chow" across the top of the bed, and an inch of castings are harvested from below by pulling a breaker bar across the large mesh screen which forms the base of the bed. Because red worms are surface dwellers and are constantly moving towards the new food source, the flow-through system eliminates the need to separate worms from the castings before packaging. Flow-through systems are well suited to indoor facilities, making them the preferred choice for operations in colder climates.
When beginning a vermicomposting bin, moist bedding is put into the bin and the worms are added. In hot climates, the bin is placed away from direct sunlight. Appropriate waste can be added daily or weekly. At first, the worms are fed at most half their body weight per day. After they have established themselves, they can be fed up to their entire body weight. It is best not to add new food on top of old food until the old food has been processed by the worms. However, new food can be added in a different location in the bin.
Bedding is the living medium and also a food source for the worms. It is material high in carbon and made to mimic decaying dried leaves on the forest floor, the worms' natural habitat. The bedding should be moist (often similar to the consistency of a wrung-out sponge) and loose to enable the worms to breathe and to facilitate aerobic decomposition of the food that is buried in it.
A wide variety of bedding materials can be used, including shredded newspaper, sawdust, hay, cardboard, burlap coffee sacks, peat moss, pre-composted (aged) manure, and dried leaves. Cat litter, and pet and human waste should not be used.
Most vermicomposters avoid using glossy paper from newspapers and magazines, junk mail, and shredded paper from offices, because they may contain toxins which may disrupt the system. Also, coated cardboard that contains wax or plastic, such as milk boxes, cannot be used. Newspaper and phone books printed on regular, non-glossy paper with non-toxic soy ink are safe for use, and decompose relatively quickly. Some bedding is easier to use and add food scraps to than others.
Worms used in composting systems prefer temperatures of 55 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit (12-21 degrees Celsius). The temperature of the bedding should not drop below freezing or above 85 °F (29 °C). This temperature range means that indoor vermicomposting is suitable for homes in all but tropical climates.
Worms and other composting organisms have a preferred ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N), approximately 30:1. As some waste is richer in carbon and others in nitrogen, waste must be mixed to approximate the ideal ratio. "Brown matter", or wood products such as shredded papers, is rich in carbon. "Green matter", such as food scraps, has more nitrogen, which is related to the amount of protein in the waste.If the waste is mostly vegetable and fruit scraps, and does not regularly include animal products or high-protein vegetable foods like beans, the resulting vermicompost and waste liquid will be low in nitrogen.
Kitchen waste suitable for worms includes coffee grounds and filters, tea bags and plate scrapings, as well as rotting fruit, vegetable peels, leftovers, moldy bread, etc.
If too much kitchen waste is added, the bin mixture putrifies before the worms can process it and becomes harmful to the worms. High-protein foods like beans are particularly susceptible. Check the bin at least once a week, and give it a stir to oxygenate and add bedding if the bin appears too moist.
Soft garden wastes such as carrot tops and tomato leaves are suitable foods. An occasional sprinkling of garden soil in the bin gives the worms grit they need to digest food. It's not harmful to throw in an entire plant, but the worms will not process the woody parts or large roots and these will have to be hand-separated later from the finished vermicompost.
High-water-content materials like watermelon rinds add a great deal of moisture to the system with very little food for the worms, and should be added sparingly as they disrupt the moisture level of the system.
Grass clippings and other products sprayed with pesticides should be avoided. Some banana peels are heavily sprayed, and can kill everything if added to a small bin.
Although worms can digest proteins and fats in meat scraps, these materials can attract scavengers. Too much oil or fat can hinder the breathing of the worms, as they breathe through their skin. Worms cannot break down bone and are said to dislike highly spiced foods such as onions, garlic, and salt.
If possible, sticky food labels, rubber bands, tea bag staples, and other inedibles should be removed before placing the food in the worm bin, as these items will not decompose. Fruit pits need not be removed from decaying fruit before adding, as the worms will eat all the soft matter.
Worms and other composting microorganisms require oxygen, so the bin must "breathe". This can be accomplished by regularly removing the composted material, adding holes to the bin, or using a continuous-flow bin. If insufficient oxygen is available, the decay becomes anaerobic, like that in swamps and bogs, producing a strong odor and creating a toxic environment for the worms.
The moisture level and oxygen flow in a home worm bin should be checked at least once a week.
Over the long term, care should be taken to maintain optimum moisture levels. In a non-continuous-flow vermicomposting bin, excess liquid can be drained via a tap and used as plant food. A continuous flow bin does not retain excess liquid and, depending on the foods used, may require sprinklings of water to keep the bedding moist.
The pH should be slightly alkaline. Alkalinity can be increased by occasionally adding a handful of calcium carbonate, sold as "garden lime." Do not confuse calcium carbonate with regular lime (Calcium oxide), which is far too alkaline and will kill worms. Adding many citrus peels can hinder the worms, but probably due not to acidity but to d-limonene, a fragrant chemical present in the rind of citrus fruits. Coffee grounds have sometimes been blamed for acidity, but analysis shows they are only mildly acidic, with a pH of 6.2.
There are two methods of adding matter to the bin.
Vermicomposters often use a combination of both methods. Sometimes unburied food can attract fruit flies, so food should be buried under at least one inch of bedding material.
Vermicompost is ready for harvest when it contains few to no scraps of uneaten food or bedding. Even a properly composted mixture will contain large items that should be discarded, such as peach or date pits, glassine-like sheets from melon skins, and twigs. Small seeds from composted food such as tomatoes and peppers cannot be removed from the vermicompost and may sprout later in the seed-starting pots or garden.
There are several methods of harvesting, depending on the purpose for which the vermicompost will be used, and whether or not the composter wishes to salvage as many worms and worm eggs as possible from the vermicompost.
Vermicompost, also known as worm castings and vermicast, is richer in many nutrients than compost produced by other composting methods. It also contains millions of microbes which help break down nutrients already present in the soil into plant-available forms. Unlike other compost, worm castings also contain worm mucus which keeps nutrients from washing away with the first watering and holds moisture better than plain soil. Worm compost is usually too rich and gummy for use alone as a seed starter, and is used as a top dressing or mixed with soil in a ratio of one to four. Some fruit and seed pits are reported to germinate in vermicompost easily.
Vermicompost benefits soil by
Vermicompost can be used to make compost tea (worm tea), by mixing some vermicompost in water and steeping for a number of hours or days. The resulting liquid is used as a fertilizer.
The dark brown waste liquid that drains into the bottom of some vermicomposting systems, as water-rich foods break down, is also excellent as fertilizer. However, the pH and nutrient contents of these liquids (as well as vermicompost) varies, depending on the food fed to the worms and whether or not lime has been added to the system. pH and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) measurements should be taken periodically to determine the fertilizer composition before use. Home kits for testing are sold in hardware stores and nurseries.
Vermicompost fed to poultry stimulates their immune system.
Odor, usually due to overabundance of "greens" (wet waste) in the bin, results from too much nitrogen combining with hydrogen to form ammonia. To neutralize the odors, add a fair amount of shredded newspaper or other "browns" to the mix to absorb excess moisture, remove the smelly waste, and stop adding food to the bin until a substantial portion of the uneaten food has been turned into compost. The carbon will absorb the nitrogen and form a compound that is not smelly. The higher level of carbon means that decomposition will be slower.
Pests such as rodents and flies may be attracted by certain materials and odors, especially lots of kitchen waste and especially meat. This problem is largely avoided if a sealed bin is used where the pests cannot access the material. Nevertheless, fruit flies can easily enter the bin on fruit scraps or from the air when the bin is open, and once inside the bin, quickly reproduce in the moist environment. Ants can become a problem as well. No-see-um netting can be used; regular mosquito window screen is too large and lets fruit flies and possibly ants in as well.
Red Wiggler worms are not native to North America. They are an invasive species and have become naturalized in most of the globe. Do not dump worm-containing compost or release unused Red Wiggler bait worms in natural areas, as the worms can multiply and displace the native worms.
Commercially available vermicomposting systems
Home vermicompost systems or worm bins are available from many retailers. Clive Roberts BSc invented the very first 'Wormery' in the late 1980s and in 1991 patented his design for The Original Wormery, in the UK.
In the United States, state Cooperative Extension Services and local governments may provide assistance and training in home vermicomposting.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Vermicompost". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|