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Isotopes of lead



Lead (Pb) has four stable isotopes - 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb and one common radiogenic isotope 202Pb with a half-life of ~53,000 years. The Standard atomic mass is 207.2(1) u. It is the heaviest discovered element to have a stable isotope. (The more massive 209Bi, long considered to be stable, actually has a half-life of 1.9×1019 years)

Additional recommended knowledge

Isotopes of lead occurring within the radioactive disintegration chains of actinium, radium and thorium were known as:

  • radium G : 206Pb
  • actinium D : 207Pb
  • thorium D : 208Pb
  • radium D, radio-lead or radiolead : 210Pb
  • actinium B : 211Pb
  • thorium B : 212Pb
  • radium B : 214Pb

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
178Pb 82 96 178.003830(26) 0.23(15) ms 0+
179Pb 82 97 179.00215(21)# 3# ms 5/2-#
180Pb 82 98 179.997918(22) 4.5(11) ms 0+
181Pb 82 99 180.99662(10) 45(20) ms 5/2-#
182Pb 82 100 181.992672(15) 60(40) ms [55(+40-35) ms] 0+
183Pb 82 101 182.99187(3) 535(30) ms (3/2-)
183mPb 94(8) keV 415(20) ms (13/2+)
184Pb 82 102 183.988142(15) 490(25) ms 0+
185Pb 82 103 184.987610(17) 6.3(4) s 3/2-
185mPb 60(40)# keV 4.07(15) s 13/2+
186Pb 82 104 185.984239(12) 4.82(3) s 0+
187Pb 82 105 186.983918(9) 15.2(3) s (3/2-)
187mPb 11(11) keV 18.3(3) s (13/2+)
188Pb 82 106 187.980874(11) 25.5(1) s 0+
188m1Pb 2578.2(7) keV 830(210) ns (8-)
188m2Pb 2800(50) keV 797(21) ns
189Pb 82 107 188.98081(4) 51(3) s (3/2-)
189mPb 40(30)# keV 1# min (13/2+)
190Pb 82 108 189.978082(13) 71(1) s 0+
190m1Pb 2614.8(8) keV 150 ns (10)+
190m2Pb 2618(20) keV 25 µs (12+)
190m3Pb 2658.2(8) keV 7.2(6) µs (11)-
191Pb 82 109 190.97827(4) 1.33(8) min (3/2-)
191mPb 20(50) keV 2.18(8) min 13/2(+)
192Pb 82 110 191.975785(14) 3.5(1) min 0+
192m1Pb 2581.1(1) keV 164(7) ns (10)+
192m2Pb 2625.1(11) keV 1.1(5) µs (12+)
192m3Pb 2743.5(4) keV 756(21) ns (11)-
193Pb 82 111 192.97617(5) 5# min (3/2-)
193m1Pb 130(80)# keV 5.8(2) min 13/2(+)
193m2Pb 2612.5(5)+X keV 135(+25-15) ns (33/2+)
194Pb 82 112 193.974012(19) 12.0(5) min 0+
195Pb 82 113 194.974542(25) ~15 min 3/2#-
195m1Pb 202.9(7) keV 15.0(12) min 13/2+
195m2Pb 1759.0(7) keV 10.0(7) µs 21/2-
196Pb 82 114 195.972774(15) 37(3) min 0+
196m1Pb 1049.20(9) keV <100 ns 2+
196m2Pb 1738.27(12) keV <1 µs 4+
196m3Pb 1797.51(14) keV 140(14) ns 5-
196m4Pb 2693.5(5) keV 270(4) ns (12+)
197Pb 82 115 196.973431(6) 8.1(17) min 3/2-
197m1Pb 319.31(11) keV 42.9(9) min 13/2+
197m2Pb 1914.10(25) keV 1.15(20) µs 21/2-
198Pb 82 116 197.972034(16) 2.4(1) h 0+
198m1Pb 2141.4(4) keV 4.19(10) µs (7)-
198m2Pb 2231.4(5) keV 137(10) ns (9)-
198m3Pb 2820.5(7) keV 212(4) ns (12)+
199Pb 82 117 198.972917(28) 90(10) min 3/2-
199m1Pb 429.5(27) keV 12.2(3) min (13/2+)
199m2Pb 2563.8(27) keV 10.1(2) µs (29/2-)
200Pb 82 118 199.971827(12) 21.5(4) h 0+
201Pb 82 119 200.972885(24) 9.33(3) h 5/2-
201m1Pb 629.14(17) keV 61(2) s 13/2+
201m2Pb 2718.5+X keV 508(5) ns (29/2-)
202Pb 82 120 201.972159(9) 52.5(28)E+3 a 0+
202m1Pb 2169.83(7) keV 3.53(1) h 9-
202m2Pb 4142.9(11) keV 110(5) ns (16+)
202m3Pb 5345.9(13) keV 107(5) ns (19-)
203Pb 82 121 202.973391(7) 51.873(9) h 5/2-
203m1Pb 825.20(9) keV 6.21(8) s 13/2+
203m2Pb 2949.47(22) keV 480(7) ms 29/2-
203m3Pb 2923.4+X keV 122(4) ns (25/2-)
204Pb 82 122 203.9730436(13) STABLE [>140E+15 a] 0+ 0.014(1) 0.0104-0.0165
204m1Pb 1274.00(4) keV 265(10) ns 4+
204m2Pb 2185.79(5) keV 67.2(3) min 9-
204m3Pb 2264.33(4) keV 0.45(+10-3) µs 7-
205Pb 82 123 204.9744818(13) 15.3(7)E+6 a 5/2-
205m1Pb 2.329(7) keV 24.2(4) µs 1/2-
205m2Pb 1013.839(13) keV 5.55(2) ms 13/2+
205m3Pb 3195.7(5) keV 217(5) ns 25/2-
206Pb 82 124 205.9744653(13) STABLE 0+ 0.241(1) 0.2084-0.2748
206m1Pb 2200.14(4) keV 125(2) µs 7-
206m2Pb 4027.3(7) keV 202(3) ns 12+
207Pb 82 125 206.9758969(13) STABLE 1/2- 0.221(1) 0.1762-0.2365
207mPb 1633.368(5) keV 806(6) ms 13/2+
208Pb 82 126 207.9766521(13) STABLE [>2E+19 a] 0+ 0.524(1) 0.5128-0.5621
208mPb 4895(2) keV 500(10) ns 10+
209Pb 82 127 208.9810901(19) 3.253(14) h 9/2+
210Pb 82 128 209.9841885(16) 22.20(22) a 0+
210mPb 1278(5) keV 201(17) ns 8+
211Pb 82 129 210.9887370(29) 36.1(2) min 9/2+
212Pb 82 130 211.9918975(24) 10.64(1) h 0+
212mPb 1335(10) keV 5(1) µs (8+)
213Pb 82 131 212.996581(8) 10.2(3) min (9/2+)
214Pb 82 132 213.9998054(26) 26.8(9) min 0+
215Pb 82 133 215.00481(44)# 36(1) s 5/2+#

Notes

  • Evaluated isotopic composition is for most but not all commercial samples.
  • The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. The given ranges should be applicable to any normal terrestrial material.
  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.


Isotopes of thallium Isotopes of lead Isotopes of bismuth
Index to isotope pages
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_lead". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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