Prototype of a portable detector for protein diagnosis
Pocket-sized HIV-Diagnostic Lab
"POCKET" (from portable and cost-effective) is the prototype of a novel portable
and battery-driven protein detector that has been developed at Harvard
University in Cambridge, USA. This simple and inexpensive, yet reliable
diagnostic system for infectious diseases is ideal for broad use in poor
countries and could improve the medical care available there.
"POCKET consists of a diagnostic chip for immunoassays only a few square
millimeters in size, and a small, simple detector unit," explains George M.
Whitesides, one of the most prominent pioneers of micro- and nanotechnology.
"Current laboratory diagnostic processes are mostly not suitable for developing
nations; aside from the high cost and complex equipment, the necessary
infrastructure, such as a power supply, is often lacking." The immunoassay-an
HIV test was developed as a prototype-is carried out in channels on the chip
that are only about 2 mm in width.
A blood sample is pipetted into each channel. In spreading through the channel,
it reaches a stripe to which protein fragments from the HI virus have been
attached. If the blood sample contains HIV antibodies, they recognize the
protein fragments and bind tightly to them. A second type of antibody is then
sent through the channels in order to mark the bound HIV antibodies. These
second antibodies, which are coupled to tiny gold spheres, recognize the HIV
antibodies and stick to them. In the next step, a solution of silver nitrate and
an oxidizing agent is applied. Where the gold-adorned markers are bound, the
gold catalyzes the oxidation of the silver ions to metallic silver, which
deposits onto the walls of the channels-a self-amplifying reaction, because the
silver then also catalyzes the oxidation of more silver ions. This is where the
detector comes in. A small red laser diode shines light through the channels. On
the other side of the chip, an integrated circuit with a photodetector registers
how much the light is diminished by the silver layer. This allows the number of
HIV antibodies to be quantified, just as precisely as laboratory methods but
much more quickly. A liquid crystal display shows the results. "A 9 V battery is
sufficient to power the detector, and its components are commercially available
for only $45," reports Whitesides. "The chip is produced by "soft lithography",
a microtechnical method well suited to mass production."
Not far from where Edwin Land -- the inventor of the Polaroid camera -- made his pioneering discoveries about polarized light, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) are continuing to unlock the power of polarization.
Recently, a team ... more
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new flow battery that stores energy in organic molecules dissolved in neutral pH water. This new chemistry allows for a non-toxic, non-corrosive battery with an exceptionally long ... more
Last summer, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) announced a new, flat lens that could focus light with high efficiency within the visible spectrum. The lens used an ultrathin array of nanopillars to bend and focus light as it passed. ... more
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world’s smallest radio receiver – built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. This tiny radio — whose building blocks are the size of two atoms — can withstand extrem ... more
Harvard researchers have designed a new type of foldable material that is versatile, tunable and self actuated. It can change size, volume and shape; it can fold flat to withstand the weight of an elephant without breaking, and pop right back up to prepare for the next task. more
As part of the 2015–2016 Fellows’ Presentation Series at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Scott T. Milner RI ’16 discusses current trends in solar power, how solar cells work, and how polymer-based materials may offer an attractive alternative to silicon. more