Prototype of a portable detector for protein diagnosis
Pocket-sized HIV-Diagnostic Lab
20-01-2004: "POCKET" (from portable and cost-effective) is the prototype of a novel portable
and battery-driven protein detector that has been developed at Harvard
University in Cambridge, USA. This simple and inexpensive, yet reliable
diagnostic system for infectious diseases is ideal for broad use in poor
countries and could improve the medical care available there.
"POCKET consists of a diagnostic chip for immunoassays only a few square
millimeters in size, and a small, simple detector unit," explains George M.
Whitesides, one of the most prominent pioneers of micro- and nanotechnology.
"Current laboratory diagnostic processes are mostly not suitable for developing
nations; aside from the high cost and complex equipment, the necessary
infrastructure, such as a power supply, is often lacking." The immunoassay-an
HIV test was developed as a prototype-is carried out in channels on the chip
that are only about 2 mm in width.
A blood sample is pipetted into each channel. In spreading through the channel,
it reaches a stripe to which protein fragments from the HI virus have been
attached. If the blood sample contains HIV antibodies, they recognize the
protein fragments and bind tightly to them. A second type of antibody is then
sent through the channels in order to mark the bound HIV antibodies. These
second antibodies, which are coupled to tiny gold spheres, recognize the HIV
antibodies and stick to them. In the next step, a solution of silver nitrate and
an oxidizing agent is applied. Where the gold-adorned markers are bound, the
gold catalyzes the oxidation of the silver ions to metallic silver, which
deposits onto the walls of the channels-a self-amplifying reaction, because the
silver then also catalyzes the oxidation of more silver ions. This is where the
detector comes in. A small red laser diode shines light through the channels. On
the other side of the chip, an integrated circuit with a photodetector registers
how much the light is diminished by the silver layer. This allows the number of
HIV antibodies to be quantified, just as precisely as laboratory methods but
much more quickly. A liquid crystal display shows the results. "A 9 V battery is
sufficient to power the detector, and its components are commercially available
for only $45," reports Whitesides. "The chip is produced by "soft lithography",
a microtechnical method well suited to mass production."
While setting out to fabricate new springs to support a cephalopod-inspired imaging project, a group of Harvard researchers stumbled upon a surprising discovery: the hemihelix, a shape rarely seen in nature.
This made the researchers wonder: Were the three-dimensional structures they observ ... more
Harvard researchers have succeeded in creating quantum switches that can be turned on and off using a single photon, a technological achievement that could pave the way for the creation of highly secure quantum networks.
Built from single atoms, the first-of-their-kind switches could one da ... more
For decades, scientists have used techniques like X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) to gain invaluable insight into the atomic structure of molecules, but such efforts have long been hampered by the fact that they demand large quantities of a specific molecu ... more