My watch list
my.chemeurope.com  
Login  

Cotinine



Cotinine
IUPAC name (S)-1-Methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone
Other names 1-Methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone
S-(-)-Cotinine
Identifiers
CAS number 486-56-6
SMILES O=C1CC[C@@H]([C@]2=CN=CC=C2)N1C
Properties
Molecular formula C10H12N2O
Molar mass 176.22 g/mol
Melting point

41 °C

Boiling point

250 °C

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine. The word 'cotinine' is an anagram of 'nicotine'. It is used to measure the grade of tobacco smoking, but might also improve mental function.

Additional recommended knowledge

Measure of smoking

Cotinine typically remains in the blood between 48 and 96 hours. The level of cotinine in the blood is proportionate to the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke, so it is a valuable indicator of tobacco smoke exposure, including secondary smoke. Women who smoke menthol cigarettes retain cotinine in the blood for a longer period.[1] Race may also play a role, as black people routinely register higher blood cotinine levels than white people.[2] Several variable factors, such as menthol cigarette preference and puff size, suggest that the explanation for this difference may be more complex than gender or race.

Drug tests can detect cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva.

Mental function

There is some research being done on the effects of cotinine on memory and cognition. Some studies have suggested that cotinine (as well as nicotine) improves memory and prevents neuron death. For this reason it has been studied for effectiveness in treating schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases[3]. There is research, however, which also suggests that nicotine and cotinine contribute to Alzheimer's disease in other ways which counter and maybe even negate the possible positive effects they might have.[4]

References

  1. ^ Ham, Becky. "Signs of Smoking Linger Longer in Menthol Smokers", Health Behavior News Service, 2002-12-16. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  2. ^ News, BBC. "'Race role' in tobacco smoke risk", BBC NEWS, 2007-03-17. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. 
  3. ^ McKie, Robin. "Warning: nicotine seriously improves health", The Observer, 2004-07-18. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  4. ^ Reinberg, Steven. "Nicotine Won't Slow Alzheimer's", HealthDay News, 2005-02-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Cotinine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE