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Ecamsule (USAN, trade name Mexoryl® SX, INCI Terephthalylidene Dicamphor Sulfonic Acid) is a chemical which is added to many sunscreens to filter out UVA rays. It is a benzylidene camphor derivative, many of which are known for their excellent photostability.
Although there are a few different UV absorbers with the trade name Mexoryl, only two of them are widely used where approved. Mexoryl SX (water soluble) and Mexoryl XL (INCI Drometrizole Trisiloxane, oil soluble). Together they show a synergistic effect in protection. The patents are held by L’Oréal. Sunscreens containing ecamsule are exclusive to L’Oréal and its brands.
Additional recommended knowledge
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UVB rays cause short-term sunburn and skin cancer; UVA rays cause wrinkling and may have some role in development of skin cancer. There is no official rating for UVA protection in the US. In Europe, there are several different rating systems that are used to measure effectiveness in blocking UVA rays, including the IPD (immediate pigment darkening assay) and the PPD (persistent pigment darkening assay). The UVB range is 280 to 320 nanometers, and the UVA range is 320 to 400. Ecamsule protects against UV wavelengths in the 290–400 nanometer range, with peak protection at 345 nm. Since ecamsule doesn't cover the entire UV spectrum, it should be combined with other active sunscreen agents to ensure broad-spectrum UV protection. Ecamsule is a photostable organic UVA absorber, meaning it doesn't degrade significantly when exposed to light. This is in contrast to the widely used UVA absorber avobenzone that is not intrinsically photostable and requires photostabilizers to prevent significant degradation in light.
A 5% ecamsule containing sunscreen can prevent early changes leading to photoaging in humans. A broad spectrum sunscreen with ecamsule, avobenzone and octocrylene significantly reduces the skin damage associated with UV exposure in human subjects.
In studies done in mice it reduces the formation of UV induced pyrimidine dimers and delays the onset of skin cancer. In vitro ecamsule effectively protects against the harmful effects of UV.
Ecamsule has little percutaneous absorption and little systemic effects, therefore it is considered relatively safe. A mouse study shows that it does not increase the probability of promoting skin cancer. Studies done in vitro show that it is not photomutagenic.
L’Oréal patented ecamsule first in 1982. It was approved in the EU in 1991. Sunscreens based on ecamsule have been available in Europe, Canada and other parts of the world since 1993, and was just recently given approval by the FDA in the U.S. However this approval only extends to ecamsule containing sunscreens registered under a New Drug Application, not ecamsule itself.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ecamsule". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.