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List of alchemical substances

Alchemical studies produced a number of substances, which were later classified as particular chemical compounds or mixtures of compounds.

  • Flowers of sulfur - formed by distilling sulfur.
  • Butter (or oil) of antimony - antimony trichloride. Formed by distilling roasted stibnite with corrosive sublimate, or dissolving stibnite in hot concentrated hydrochloric acid and distilling.
  • Cadmia/Tuttia/Tutty - probably zinc carbonate.
  • Calamine - zinc carbonate.
  • Calomel/horn quicksilver/horn mercury - mercury(I) chloride, a very poisonous purgative formed by subliming a mixture of mercuric chloride and metallic mercury, triturated in a mortar and heated in an iron pot. The crust formed on the lid was ground to powder and boiled with water to remove the calomel.
  • Caustic potash/Caustic Wood Alkali - potassium hydroxide, formed by adding lime to potash.
  • Caustic Soda/Caustic Marine Alkali - sodium hydroxide, formed by adding lime to natron.
  • Caustic Volatile Alkali - ammonium hydroxide.
  • Chalk - a rock composed of porous biogenic calcium carbonate.
  • Chrome green - chromic oxide and cobalt oxide.
  • Chrome orange - chrome yellow and chrome red.
  • Chrome red - basic lead chromate - PbCrO4+PbO.
  • Chrome yellow/Paris Yellow/Leipzig Yellow - lead chromate - PbCrO4.
  • Cinnabar/Vermilion - refers to several substances, among them: mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion (the common ore of mercury).
  • Copper glance - copper(I) sulfide ore.
  • Corrosive sublimate - mercuric chloride, formed by subliming mercury, calcined green vitriol, common salt and nitre.
  • Cuprite - copper(I) oxide ore.
  • Dutch White - a pigment, formed from one part of white lead to three of barium sulfate.
  • Flowers of antimony - antimony trioxide, formed by roasting stibnite at high temperature and condensing the white fumes that form.
  • Fool's gold - a mineral; iron disulfide or pyrite, can form oil of vitriol on contact with water and air.
  • Fulminating silver - silver nitride, formed by dissolving silver(I) oxide in ammonia. Very explosive when dry.
  • Fulminating gold - gold hydrazide, formed by adding ammonia to the auric hydroxide. When dry, can explode on concussion.
  • Galena - lead(II) sulfide. Lead ore.
  • Glass of Antimony - impure antimony tetroxide, formed by roasting stibnite. A yellow pigment for glass and porcelain.
  • Glauber's Salt - sodium sulfate.
  • Green Vitriol - a mineral; iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate. (or ferrous sulfate)
  • Luna cornea - silver chloride, formed by heating horn silver till it liquifies and then cooling.
  • Liver of sulfur - formed by fusing potash and sulfur.
  • Lunar caustic/lapis infernalis - silver nitrate, formed by dissolving silver in aqua fortis and evaporating.
  • Lye - potash in a water solution, formed by leaching wood ashes.
  • Litharge - lead monoxide, formed by fusing and powdering massicot.
  • Minium/Red Lead - trilead tetroxide, formed by roasting litharge in air.
  • Naples yellow/Cassel yellow - oxychloride of lead, formed by heating litharge with sal ammoniac.
  • Spiritus fumans - stannic chloride, formed by distilling tin with corrosive sublimate.
  • Stibnite - antimony or antimony trisulfide, ore of antimony.
  • Sugar of Lead - lead acetate, formed by dissolving lead oxide in vinegar.
  • Sweet Vitriol- diethyl ether.
  • Thion Hudor - lime sulfur, formed by boiling flowers of sulfur with slaked lime.
  • Turpeth mineral - hydrolysed form of mercury(II) sulfate.
  • Verdigris - copper(II) carbonate or (more recently) copper(II) acetate. The carbonate is formed by weathering copper. The acetate is formed by vinegar acting on copper. One version was used as a green pigment.
  • White arsenic - arsenious oxide, formed by subliminating arsenical soot from the roasting ovens.
  • White lead- lead carbonate, a toxic pigment, produced by corroding stacks of lead plates with dilute vinegar beneath a heap of moistened wood shavings. (replaced by blanc fixe & lithopone)
  • White vitriol - zinc sulfate, formed by lixiviating roasted zinc blende.
  • Venetian White - formed from equal parts of white lead and barium sulfate.
  • Zaffre - impure cobalt arsenate, formed after roasting cobalt ore.
  • Zinc Blende - zinc sulfide.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_alchemical_substances". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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