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Lithium hydroxide



Lithium hydroxide
IUPAC name Lithium hydroxide
Other names Lithine
Identifiers
CAS number 1310-65-2
RTECS number OJ6307070
Properties
Molecular formula LiOH
Molar mass 23.95 g/mol
Appearance Hygroscopic white solid
Density 1.46 g/cm3, solid
Melting point

450-470 °C

Boiling point

924 °C (decomposes)

Hazards
Main hazards Corrosive
Flash point Not flammable
Related Compounds
Other anions Lithium oxide
Other cations Sodium hydroxide; potassium hydroxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive alkali hydroxide. It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water, and slightly soluble in ethanol. It is available commercially in anhydrous form, or as the monohydrate.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Applications

Lithium hydroxide is used in carbon dioxide scrubbers for purification of gases and air. It is used as a heat transfer medium, as a storage-battery electrolyte, and as a catalyst for polymerization. It is also used in ceramics, manufacturing other lithium compounds, and esterification specially for lithium stearate (which is used as a general purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and is useful at both high and low temperatures).

Production

Lithium hydroxide can be produced by dissolving lithium or lithium oxide in water. The reaction is as follows:

2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2
Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOH

Because lithium reacts rapidly (but not violently) with water, lithium batteries should be kept away from water.

Industrially, lithium hydroxide is produced in a metathesis reaction between lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide:

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → LiOH + CaCO3

Reactions

Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft (Lithium hydroxide canisters in the LEM were lifelines for the Apollo 13 astronauts), submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonate and water:

2 LiOH·H2O + CO2 → Li2CO3 + 3 H2O

Or,

2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O

The later, anhydrous hydroxide is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. 1 gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100-110 °C.

See also

  • soda lime
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lithium_hydroxide". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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