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Phenylmagnesium bromide, with the simplified formula C6H5MgBr, is a a magnesium-containing organometallic compound. It is so commonly used that it is commercially available as a solution in diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran (THF). Phenylmagnesium bromide is a Grignard reagent. It is often used as a synthetic equivalent for the "Ph−" phenyl synthon.
Additional recommended knowledge
Preparation and structure
Phenylmagnesium bromide can be prepared in the laboratory by treating bromobenzene with magnesium metal, usually in the form of ribbon. A polar solvent is required to solvate the magnesium portion of the molecule, hence the use of ether or THF. Protic solvents such as alcohols and water react with phenylmagnesium bromide to give benzene, and halogenated solvents are also incompatible with the synthesis. A small amount of iodine may be used to activate the magnesium by removing the oxide surface.
Although in organic synthesis it is convenient to represent this species as C6H5MgBr, the molecule is more complex as shown in the figure. The compound invariably forms an adduct with two OR2 ligands from the ether or THF solvent. Thus the Mg is tetrahedral and obeys the octet rule. The Mg-O distances are 2.01 and 2.06 Å whereas the Mg-C and Mg-Br distances are 2.2 and 2.44 Å, respectively.
Phenylmagnesium bromide is a strong nucleophile as well as a strong base. It can abstract many labile protons, thus the substrate must be protected where necessary. It often adds to carbonyls, which are electron-deficient, such as in the laboratory synthesis of benzoic acid and triphenylmethanol.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phenylmagnesium_bromide". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|